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This species is accepted, and its native range is Central Malesia to Papuasia and NW. Pacific.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[KBu]

De Kok, R. (2007). The Genus Vitex L. (Lamiaceae) in New Guinea and the South Pacific Islands. Kew Bulletin, 62(4), 587-603. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20443390

Conservation
Not threatened.
Distribution
Indonesia: Sulawesi, Moluccas, Aru Islands, West Papua; Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Caroline Islands: Koror Island (see de Kok 2007). Indonesia: Sulawesi, Moluccas. Aru Islands, West Papua; Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Caroline Islands: Koror Island. Also reported from the Marianas (Whitmore 1966). Introduced into Java and Sri Lanka (Moldenke & Moldenke 1983).
Ecology
Canopy to small understory tree, often common in coastal vegetation or (primary, secondary, swamp or tidal) forest, often in disturbed areas (roadside and gardens) and often along watercourses, at 0 - 400 (- 1200) m altitude. Soil: clay or brownish red loam to sand, sometimes on serpentine, limestone or porous volcanic substrates. Associated with Terminalia archipelagi Coode, T. brassii Exell and Pometia pinnata J. & G. Forst.
Seedling
Seedlings with coarsely notched leaves (Whitmore 1966)
Morphology General Bark
Bark smooth to flaky, (light to greyish) brown to white-yellowish grey, slash cream to straw-coloured with bright orange or yellow-brown streaks; sapwood creamy to straw-coloured or orange; heart wood (dark to grey) brown or black, very hard, oily; exudate absent to sparse yellowish watery
Morphology General Habit
Tree (rarely a shrub) 6 - 40(- 60) m high, bole 0.3 - 26 m, 15 - 225 cm diameter at breast height (DBH), stem often twisted, buttresses absent or up to 6 m high
Morphology General Wood
For a detailed anatomical description of the wood, see Fundter & Wisse (1977).
Morphology Leaves
Leaves simple, narrowly elliptic to elliptic, usually obovate, (2.5-)10-30 x (0.8-)3-11 cm, ratio 1.4-3.5, diminishing in size towards the inflorescence, glabrous, base cuneate to rounded, apex acuminate to rarely rounded, margin entire, medium green on both sides or paler below; venation pinnate, 9 - 18 main side veins, prominent beneath, sunken above, pale green or yellow beneath; glands white to orange
Morphology Leaves Petiole
Petiole 2.5 - 8 cm long, terete, with two leaf scars at apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Filaments 4.5 - 6 mm long, inserted halfway on the corolla tube, exceeding the corolla tube, glabrous, except for tuft of erect simple multicellular hairs at base, purple to purplish blue; anther 0.7 - 1 mm long, sub-basifixed, deep mauve to black, pollen yellow
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5-lobed (but lobes usually obscure), lobes up to 1 mm long, slightly accrescent, (pale) green to yellow-brown, glabrous or with a few hairs at base (young buds can be velutinous); glands few; flowering calyx 2 - 2.3 mm diameter, erect; fruiting calyx 5 - 6 mm diameter, patent to reflexed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla 5-lobed, covered externally except for apical margins with appressed hairs, inside with a ring of long erect hairs around the base of filaments, sometime sweetly scented; glands many; lip 2.5 - 5 x 5.5 - 6 mm, spathulate, apex emarginate, margin crenate and imbricate, patent to reflexed, with erect hairs at base, dark purple, sometimes with a white rim or white spots along the margin or at base; side lobes 2.5 - 3.5 x 2.5 - 3 mm, recurved, apex acute, white to pale violet-blue; back lobes 2 - 3 x 1.7- 2 mm, erect to reflexed, fused up to 10%, apex round, white to pale violet-blue; tube 4 - 5 mm long, infundibular, purple-white
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary c. 1 mm diameter, globose, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 6- 7 mm long, exceeding the corolla, glabrous, purple; stigma 2-lobed, lobes c. 0.5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit, when fresh 0.7/ - 1 cm diameter, irregularly globose, when dried 4- 7.5 mm diameter, clavoid, glabrous, fleshy, purple to black when mature, shiny, sweet-tasting, purple juice
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence terminal (occasionally axillary), paniculate, 2.5 - 45 cm long, greyish green, covered with appressed, simple hairs; first-order bracteoles leaf-like, glabrous, diminishing in size towards apex, usually falling off; higher-order bracteoles scale-like, triangular to linear, up to 4 mm long, velutinous, usually persistent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 4 (or less by abortion) per fruit
Note
This species differs from the widespread species Vitex quinata in having one leaflet per leaf, calyces that are clearly less hairy than the inflorescence, and a corolla lip that is clearly emarginated. By contrast, V. quinata usually has palmate leaves, calyces that are as velutinous as the inflorescence, and a corolla lip with a truncated apex. The calyx indumentum character can sometimes be difficult to interpret in specimens that have old inflorescences. Vitex cofassus is one of the few Vitex species that has only one leaflet per leaf. This situation is most likely to be a derived one, as two clear leaf scars are always present at the apical end of the petiole. Furthermore, very occasionally, specimens can be found that have first-order bracteoles on the inflorescence that are trifoliolate. Moldenke based his form, V. cofassus f. anomala, on these rare examples (Moldenke 1951).
Phenology
Flowering and fruiting all year round and reported to have a low fruit set compared to the abundance of flowers (Richardson 4088).
Type
Indonesia, Insulis Moluccauis, (lecto-, Rumphii Herb. Amb. t. III, t 14 B). Designated here.
Vernacular
(Widespread or unpublished ones only): English: New Guinea teak. Indonesia: Goefasa (Indonesian); Celebes: Nau-nau (Palopo), Wanasa (Boeloekoemba bb 8579). Aru Islands: Alaua (Kobroor village). Halmahera: Ogofase mabedeka (Tobaro language, de Vogel 4462). Moluccas, Morotai: Gowaha (Tanghilisan 239). (Widespread local names only). Indonesia: Goefasa (Malay); Papua New Guinea: Garamut or Bitin (Pidgin language).

Native to:

Bismarck Archipelago, Caroline Is., Maluku, Marianas, New Guinea, Solomon Is., Sulawesi

Introduced into:

Jawa, Sri Lanka

Vitex cofassus Reinw. ex Blume appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Nov 1, 2012 Armstrong [365], Sulawesi K000734415
Jan 1, 2011 Brass, L.J. [21950], Papua New Guinea K000183039
Jan 1, 2010 Martati [54], Indonesia K000668998
Jan 1, 2008 Vogel [5782] K000248541
Jan 1, 2008 Floyd, A. [6633], Papua New Guinea K000706867
Jan 1, 2006 Sonawe-ainakahata, K. [1197], Indonesia K000668993
Jan 1, 2005 de Vogel [6959], Indonesia K000223202
Jan 1, 2005 de Vogel [6668], Indonesia K000223201
Jan 1, 2005 de Vogel, E. [4462], Indonesia K000223344
Jan 1, 2005 Hollrung, M. [505], Papua New Guinea K000223705 isotype
Jan 1, 2005 Boschproefstation [8578], Indonesia K000668990
Jan 1, 2005 Haan, G.A.L. de [1797], Indonesia K000826826
Jan 1, 2005 Main [1516], Indonesia K000826827
Jan 1, 2005 Main [926], Indonesia K000826829
Jan 1, 2005 Buwalda, P. [5006], Indonesia K000826831
Jan 1, 2005 Buwalda, P. [4030], Indonesia K000826828
Jan 1, 2005 Main [860], Indonesia K000826830
Jan 1, 2005 Anang [668], Indonesia K000826824
Jan 1, 2005 Ramlanto [123], Indonesia K000668992
Jan 1, 2005 Bünnemeijer, H.A.B. [10773], Indonesia K000668991
Jan 1, 2005 Buwalda, P. [5435], Indonesia K000826825
Jan 1, 2004 Kostermans [1472], Indonesia K000223189
Jan 1, 2004 Hosaka, E.Y. [3402], Caroline Is. K000183989
Jan 1, 2004 Taylor, P.M. [P-358], Indonesia K000182890
Jan 1, 2004 McDonald [4039], Indonesia K000182884
Jan 1, 2004 de Vogel, E. [3456], Indonesia K000223345
Jan 1, 2004 de Vogel, E. [3900], Indonesia K000223346
Jan 1, 2004 de Vogel, E. [3158], Indonesia K000223347
Jan 1, 2004 Martati [XI.J.9], Indonesia K000182897
Jan 1, 2004 van Balgooy, M.M.J. [6372], Indonesia K000223348
Jan 1, 2004 Foreman, D.B. [NGF48212], Papua New Guinea K000222799
Jan 1, 2004 Kuswata [111], Indonesia K000270889
Jan 1, 2004 Idjan [184], Indonesia K000182874
Jan 1, 2004 Coode, M.J.E. [NGF46089], Papua New Guinea K000222797
Jan 1, 2004 Kuswata [43], Indonesia K000270894
Jan 1, 2003 Gafui, I. et al. [18675], Solomon Is. K000183968
Jan 1, 2003 Ledermann, C.L. [7261], Papua New Guinea K000183541
Jan 1, 2003 Kanehira [11745], Indonesia K000183540
Jan 1, 2002 Hartley, T. [10154], Papua New Guinea K000182877
Jan 1, 2002 Ridgwell [7366], Papua New Guinea K000182887
Jan 1, 2002 Lane-Poole, C.E. [590], Papua New Guinea K000183490
Jan 1, 2002 Cavenangh, J. [866], Papua New Guinea K000183495
Jan 1, 2002 Craven, L.A. [704], Papua New Guinea K000183498
Jan 1, 2002 Kostermans [474], Indonesia K000183504
Jan 1, 2002 Royen, P. van [3247], Indonesia K000183505
Jan 1, 2002 Richardson, A.C. [4088], Papua New Guinea K000183516
Jan 1, 2002 Royen, P. van [NGF16422], Papua New Guinea K000183532
Jan 1, 2002 Streimann, H. [NGF47694], Papua New Guinea K000183535
Jan 1, 2002 Foreman, D.B. [NGF45972], Papua New Guinea K000183536
Jan 1, 2002 Millar, A. [NGF22650], Papua New Guinea K000183544
Jan 1, 2002 Coode, M.J.E. [NGF29650], Papua New Guinea K000183539
Jan 1, 2002 Craven, L.A. [927], Papua New Guinea K000183524
Jan 1, 2002 Lane-Poole, C.E. [590], Papua New Guinea K000706675
Jan 1, 2002 Vandenberg, J. [NGF42266], Papua New Guinea K000183549
Jan 1, 2002 Brass, L.J. [21909], Papua New Guinea K000182866
Jan 1, 2002 Sayers, D. [NGF24137], Papua New Guinea K000183545
Jan 1, 2002 Brass, L.J. [14124], Indonesia K000183494
Jan 1, 2002 Koster, Ch. [BW1466], Indonesia K000183491
Jan 1, 2002 Dept. of Forests, Lae [2989], Papua New Guinea K000182886
Jan 1, 2002 Comins, R.B. [99] K000182893
Jan 1, 2002 Takeuchi, W. [4603], Papua New Guinea K000182881
Jan 1, 2002 Millar, A.N. [NGF14539], Papua New Guinea K000183517
Jan 1, 2002 Gray, E. [3313], Papua New Guinea K000182883
Jan 1, 2002 Hoogland, R.D. [4869], Papua New Guinea K000183529
Jan 1, 2002 Floyd, A.G. [5388], Papua New Guinea K000182865
Jan 1, 2002 Ledermann, C.L. [6911], Papua New Guinea K000182871 syntype
Jan 1, 2002 Floyd, A. [6474], Papua New Guinea K000183509
Jan 1, 2002 Havel, J.J. [NGF9156], Papua New Guinea K000182879
Jan 1, 2002 Pullen, R. [6683], Papua New Guinea K000182880
Jan 1, 2002 Iwanggin, G.T. [BW10170], Indonesia K000183530
Jan 1, 2002 Henty, E.E. [NGF38569], Papua New Guinea K000183501
Jan 1, 2002 Womersley, J.S. [NGF2913], Papua New Guinea K000183508
Jan 1, 2002 Kumul, M. [NGF13063], Papua New Guinea K000183531
Jan 1, 2002 Vickery, F.T. [NGF1421], Papua New Guinea K000182888
Jan 1, 2002 Coode, M.J.E. [NGF32800], Papua New Guinea K000183534
Jan 1, 2002 Takeuchi, W. [6401], Papua New Guinea K000183513
Jan 1, 2002 Anonymous [2022], Papua New Guinea K000183502
Jan 1, 2002 Millar, A. [NGF12108], Papua New Guinea K000182875
Jan 1, 2002 Foreman, D.B. [NGF45643], Papua New Guinea K000183538
Jan 1, 2002 Streimann, H. [NGF24345], Papua New Guinea K000183496
Jan 1, 2002 Mcdonald, G. [NGF13008], Papua New Guinea K000182873
Jan 1, 2002 Frodin, D. [6602], Papua New Guinea K000183521
Jan 1, 2002 Kerenga, K. [LAE73848], Papua New Guinea K000182882
Jan 1, 2002 Vandenberg, J. [NGF42173], Papua New Guinea K000183543
Jan 1, 2002 Galore, M. [NGF17560], Papua New Guinea K000183522
Jan 1, 2002 Sayers, D. [NGF21856], Papua New Guinea K000183546
Jan 1, 2002 Schodde, R. [4497], Papua New Guinea K000183493
Jan 1, 2002 Iwanggin, G.T. [BW10074], Indonesia K000183533
Jan 1, 2002 Vinas, A.N. [248], Papua New Guinea K000183519
Jan 1, 2002 Henty, E.E. [NGF10530], Papua New Guinea K000182878
Jan 1, 2002 Frodin, D. [NGF26554], Papua New Guinea K000183503
Jan 1, 2002 Kerenga, K. [LAE56755], Papua New Guinea K000183520
Jan 1, 2002 Hellwig, F. [196], Papua New Guinea K000183542
Jan 1, 2002 Brouwer, A. [BW843], Indonesia K000183506
Jan 1, 2002 Frodin, D. [NGF26926], Papua New Guinea K000183518
Jan 1, 2002 Kerenga, K. [LAE74242], Papua New Guinea K000183515
Jan 1, 2002 Barrett, J.H. [s.n.], Papua New Guinea K000183507
Jan 1, 2002 Millar, A.N. [15640], Papua New Guinea K000706866
Jan 1, 2002 Womersley, J.S. [NGF7082], Papua New Guinea K000182867
Jan 1, 2002 Fryar, D. [NGF3347], Papua New Guinea K000183512
Jan 1, 2002 Fryar, D. [NGF4000], Papua New Guinea K000183548
Jan 1, 2002 Schlechter, R. [16044], Papua New Guinea K000182872
Jan 1, 2002 Craven, L.A. [1029], Papua New Guinea K000183497
Jan 1, 2002 Pleyte, D.R. [414], Indonesia K000182899
Jan 1, 2002 Brouwer, A. [BW809], Indonesia K000183492
Jan 1, 2002 Pleyte, D.R. [1033], Indonesia K000182889
Jan 1, 2002 Croft, J.R. [LAE65427], Papua New Guinea K000183523
Jan 1, 2002 Millar, A. [NGF38477], Papua New Guinea K000182876
Jan 1, 2002 Schodde, R. [2468], Papua New Guinea K000183499
Jan 1, 2002 Wiakabu, J. [LAE70358], Papua New Guinea K000183514
Jan 1, 2002 Foreman, D.B. [NGF45748], Papua New Guinea K000183537
Jan 1, 2002 Royen, P. van [3501], Indonesia K000183547
Jan 1, 2002 Gideon O. [LAE57253], Papua New Guinea K000183500
Dec 2, 1999 Takeuchi, W. [14086], Papua New Guinea K000706862
Jan 1, 1994 Afriastini, J.J. [2117], Indonesia K000665946
Jan 1, 1990 Sands, M.J.S. [905], Papua New Guinea K000222794
Jan 1, 1990 Sands, M.J.S. [836], Papua New Guinea K000222796
Dec 20, 1949 Tangkilisan [239], Indonesia K000668997
Jan 1, 1923 Rutten, L.M.R. [1736], Indonesia K000698051
Jan 1, 1923 Rutten, L.M.R. [s.n.], Indonesia K000698052
Jan 1, 1922 Saprin, (Toxopeus) [52], Indonesia K000665947
Tangkilisan [19], Indonesia K000668995
Vogel, E.F. de [3456], Indonesia K000668999
Tangkilisan [19], Indonesia K000668996
Bish, F.C.J. [2], Indonesia K000668994
Brass, L.J. [29192], Papua New Guinea K000182885
Maskuri [1105], Indonesia K000669000
Robinson, C.B. [302], Indonesia K000698048
Sutrisno [35], Indonesia K000665945

First published in Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind.: 813 (1826)

Accepted by

  • Bramley, G.L.C. (2019). Flora Malesiana 23: 1-444. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
  • de Kok, R. (2008). The genus Vitex (Labiatae) in the Flora Malesiana region, excluding New Guinea Kew Bulletin 63: 17-40.
  • de Kok, R.P.J. (2007). The genus Vitex L. (Lamiaceae) in New Guinea and the South Pacific islands Kew Bulletin 62: 587-603.

Literature

Kew Bulletin

  • Blume, C. L. (1825). Bijdragen tot de Flora van Nederlansch Indië. 8. Lands Drukkerij, Batavia.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • de Kok, R.P.J. (2007). The genus Vitex L. (Lamiaceae) in New Guinea and the South Pacific islands Kew Bulletin 62: 587-603.

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0