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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

Type
Type from Ghana.
Morphology General
Many stemmed shrub 1.5–4.5 m tall often scandent, or small tree to 6(15) m tall, sometimes a liane, often deciduous; bark fissured, grey to light brown; older stems brownish-yellow, red and grey; young stems orange lanate
Morphology Leaves
Leaves (3)5(7)-foliolate; petioles 2.5–12 cm long, terete; median petiolules (0.2)1.0–2.0(3.5) cm long; leaflets 2.5–11 × 1.5–4 cm, median leaflet largest, narrow to broadly lanceolate, acute to narrowly acuminate or sometimes short acuminate or rounded at the apex, cuneate or rounded at the base, glabrous on upper surface or with scattered small hairs, paler and densely finely hairy beneath, gland-dotted or not, entire or occasionally deeply toothed toward the apex, nerves sunken above and raised beneath
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary, few to many-flowered, of ± sturdy short simple dichasia 2–4 cm long, orange-tawny tomentose; bracteoles 0.5–1.2 cm long, narrowly lanceolate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx obconical, 5-lobed, ferruginous pubescent outside, gland-dotted, accrescent in fruit; tube 2–3 mm long; lobes (1)1.5–3 mm long, erect
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla creamy-white, c. 16 mm long, ferruginous pubescent outside, gland-dotted; tube to c. 7 mm long, curved; lobes mauve, at acute angle to tube, middle lower lobe 5–7 × 7–8 mm the others smaller
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens exserted from tube; filaments with glandular hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary narrowly ovoid, not gland-dotted, lanate towards apex; apex long-acuminate; style c. 10 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Drupe c. 3 × 2.5 cm, spherical-ellipsoid, rounded or sharp-tipped at the apex, not enclosed in the enlarged calyx, purplish-black at maturity; fruiting calyx saucer-shaped, pubescent, not gland-dotted.
Ecology
Riverine vegetation, semi-evergreen forest, mixed deciduous woodlands, mutemwa thickets on Kalahari Sand and coastal forest, in sandy soils and coastal dunes; sea level to 610 m.
Note
Some specimens with thin, deeply dentate leaves and long calyx teeth belong here, including: the type of V. oxycuspis var . mossambicensis ; the type of V. dryadum ; Torre & Correia 17352 (Mozambique, Angoche, (LISC)) and Wild 7572 (Mozambique MS: 16.vi.1966, (K; SRGH)).  Although differing in leaf shape they belong to V. ferruginea on floral and inflorescence characters. It has been observed by field botanists that tropical savanna species go through a burst of anomalous vegetative growth with the onset of the rains (pers. comm. David Harris).  Verdcourt, in F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 68 (1992), also refers to specimens of Vitex with such anomalous leaves considering them to be dimorphic juvenile growth. Such anomalous growth would appear to be a characteristic of Vitex species. Recorded from the Caprivi Strip by Palmer & Pitman, Trees of South. Africa 3 : 1951 (1972), as V. amboniensis , and by Verdcourt in F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae 67 (1992), but no material from there has been seen by this author.   V. ferruginea can be confused with V. mombassae mainly in their similar inflorescences and flowers: the peduncle in V. ferruginea is rather short (as it is in V. mombassae ), the bracteoles are also similar, the flowers of both are large with a prominent lower lip, and the stamens, style and stigma are clearly exserted.  However, the two species can be readily separated on petiolule length – absent or very small in V. mombassae , c. 1–2 cm long in V. ferruginea .  Other distinguishing features are leaflet shape (narrow to broadly lanceolate in V. ferruginea and elliptic to obovate in V. mombassae ) and leaflet number ((3)5 in V. ferruginea , 3(5) in V. mombassae ).
Distribution
Also in tropical Africa from Guinea-Bissau to S Nigeria, Dem. Rep. Congo and Angola, and from Somalia to South Africa. Caprivi Strip. Zambia

[FSOM]

M. Thulin. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1–4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or tree; young branches rusty pubescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 3–7-foliolate; leaflets oblanceolate-oblong to elliptic or oblong, 2.5–16.5 x 1–6.5 cm, acute to acuminate or ± obtuse at the apex, cuneate at the base, glabrous to almost so above, appressed rusty pubescent beneath; petiole 2.5–12.5 cm long; petiolules up to 2–13 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary, dense, c. 5 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx c. 3 mm long, rusty pubescent outside
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white and pale blue or violet, sometimes yellow at throat, rusty pubescent outside; tube 6–9 mm long; main lobe of limb c. 6 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit globose, 14–40 mm in diam.; fruiting calyx plate-like, 14–15 mm wide.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1–4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Distribution
Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Zambia and southwards to Transvaal.
Morphology General Shoots
Young shoots with ± appressed indumentum
Morphology Leaves Leaflets
Leaflets acute to shortly acuminate or ± obtuse, glabrous above (in Somalia).

Native to:

Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Vitex ferruginea Schumach. & Thonn. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Mar 5, 2014 Swynnerton, C.F.M. [1062], Mozambique K000960924 Unknown type material
Oct 1, 1999 Kirk, Dr. [s.n.] K000249042 Unknown type material
Oct 1, 1999 [Monteiro] [s.n.], Mozambique K000249041 Unknown type material
Oct 1, 1999 [Swynnerton [1054] K000249043 Unknown type material
Oct 1, 1999 Wakefield, T. [s.n.], Kenya K000249040 Unknown type material
Foster, E.W. [34] K000241368 Unknown type material
Foster, E.W. [34] K000241369 Unknown type material
Welwitsch, F.M.J. [5632], Angola K001067051 Unknown type material
Welwitsch [5654], Angola K001008453
Gossweiler, J. [662], Angola K001067052 Unknown type material
Welwitsch [5654], Angola K001008454
Oct 1, 1937 Holst, C. [2578], Tanzania Vitex amboniensis K000249033 isotype
Drummond, R.B. [3422], Tanzania Vitex amboniensis 18108.000
Myers, J.G. [11814], Sudan Vitex amboniensis 26319.000
Welwitsch [5644], Angola Vitex welwitschii K000249101 Unknown type material

First published in C.F.Schumacher, Beskr. Guin. Pl.: 288 (1827)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
  • Meerts, P. (2018). Synopsis of the genus Vites (Lamiaceae) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Plant Ecology and Evolution 151: 380-392.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.

Literature

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 62 , Beibl. 141: 66 (1928).
  • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 62 , Beibl. 141: 68 (1928).
  • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 62 , Beibl. 141: 70 (1928).
  • Bot. Jahrb. Syst.: 62 , Beibl. 141: 70 (1928).
  • Brenan, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 642 (1949).
  • Estud. Ensaios Doc. Junta Invest. Ci. Ultramar [in Mendonça, Contrib. Conhec. Fl. Moçamb. II]: 174 (1954).
  • Estud. Ensaios Doc. Junta Invest. Ci. Ultramar [in Mendonça, Contrib. Conhec. Fl. Moçamb. II]: 175 (1954).
  • F.T.A. 5 : 324 (1900).
  • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 66 (1992).
  • F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 2 : 447 (1963).
  • K. Coates Palgrave, Trees South. Africa: 807 (1977).
  • Kew Bull. 56 : 193 (2001).
  • Kirkia 10 : 271 (1975).
  • M. Coates Palgrave, ed. 3 of K. Coates Palgrave, Trees South. Africa: 982 (2002).
  • Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa, ed. 2, 2 : 169 (1987).
  • Ross, Fl. Natal: 300 (1972).
  • S. African J. Bot. 59 : 615 (1993).
  • Sim, For. Fl. Port. E. Africa: 94 (1909).
  • White, For. Fl. N. Rhod.: 371 (1962).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • GBIF (2008- continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, (2000) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0