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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Asia to W. Pacific.
Vitex glabrata


De Kok, R. (2007). The Genus Vitex L. (Lamiaceae) in New Guinea and the South Pacific Islands. Kew Bulletin, 62(4), 587-603. Retrieved from

Not threatened.
From Northern Australia through Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and Philippines to India (see Munir 1987). From Northern Australia via New Guinea and Indonesia to India and Cambodia (see de Kok 2007).
Rainforest or forest in seasonally inundated swamps and/or along rivers at 15- 720 m altitude. Soil: sandy clay. Widespread, but seldom a common tree of rainforest or forest in seasonally inundated swamps and/or along rivers and streams at 0 – 750 (– 900) m altitude. Soil: Sandy clay. Flowering in August to May; fruiting from August to March (– July).
A detailed description of the seedling is given in Burger (1972: 374 - 375).
Morphology General Habit
Tree 13 - 25 m high, bole up to 6- 15 m, 40 - 100 cm DBH, fluted; bark light (grey) brown; slash (brownish) straw coloured
Morphology General Wood
Sapwood cream; heartwood brown, hard
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 3 - 5 foliolate, round to elliptic or narrowly elliptic, sometimes ovate, central leaflet 12 - 25 x 3.5 - 8.5 cm, ratio 2 - 3.4, side leaflets 5 - 16 x 1 - 7.5 cm, ratio 1.5 - 2.3, glabrous, apart from erect to appressed multicellular hairs along and on the veins and at the lower surface, also in the joints with the main side veins, margin entire, base cuneate to caudate, apex round to acuminate; glands absent or few; venation pinnate, 8 - 17 main side veins, prominent below, sunken above
Morphology Leaves Petiole
Petiole 9 - 16 cm long, sparsely hairy, glands absent; petiolules 1 - 3 cm long, sparsely hairy
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Filaments 4.5 - 7 mm long, exserting corolla, inserted halfway on tube; anthers c. 0.5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx (0-) 5-lobed, campanulate, accrescent; lobes c. 0.5 mm long, apex acute; hairs sparse to dense, appressed; glands absent; flowering calyx 2 - 2.5 mm diameter, erect; fruiting calyx 7 - 9 mm diameter, patent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla 5-lobed, white to purple with darker apex; hairs dense to moderate, erect to appressed; lip 4.5 - 6.5 x 4 - 5 mm, spathulate, apex round to truncated, margin toothed, patent, hairs concentrated at throat; side lobes reflexed, 2.5 - 4.5 x 1.5 - 2.5 mm, apex round to acute; back lobes 2 - 3 x 1.5 - 2.5 mm, apex round to acute, fused up to 10%, reflexed; tube 4- 6.5 mm long, base glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovaries 1.2 - 1.5 mm diameter, globose, glabrous or with a few hairs at apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 4.5 - 9 mm long, exserting the corolla tube, glabrous; stigma 2-lobed, lobes c.0.5 mm long, apex acute
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits: fresh unknown; dried 3 - 16 mm diameter; ovoid to clavoid, smooth, glabrous, apex round
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary, cymose, axis 3.5 - 7 cm long, flattened in cross-section; hairs dense to sparse, appressed, simple, multicellular; glands absent; bracteoles triangular to linear, less then 2 mm long, moderately ciliate, persistent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 4 (or fewer by abortion) per fruit
The holotype of Vitex helogiton (Hollrung 672) in Berlin was probably destroyed during the Second World War. However, an isotype is available in Leiden, and there is therefore no need for a neotype (see Munir 1987). Munir (1987) states that Vitex glabrata is an Australian endemic and that all references to non Australian plants should refer to V. helogiton. In his opinion, V. glabrata differs from V. helogiton in having a glabrous ovary, leaflets with rounded bases, leaflets not turning blackish when dry and a fruit that is somewhat smaller (5- 13 mm long). During this study, these differences were found not to be constant over the whole range of the two proposed taxa; individuals with intermediate characteristics are common. For instance, Forbes 3784, Church & Ismail 28 and the isotype of V. helogiton have leaflets with both cuneate and rounded bases. The width of a leaflet seems to be correlated not only with the age of the leaflets (younger leaflets being more narrowly elliptic) but also with the position of the leaf relative to the inflorescence (leaves close to the inflorescence have narrower leaflets). The degree of blackening on drying is difficult to quantify, but seems to be strongly correlated with the age of the leaf when collected (younger leaves turning blacker), the age of the specimen and the mode of collecting. In their study of the species complex, Daniel & Rajendran (1995) stated that if Munir's morphological concept of the taxon V. glabrata was right, then it also occurred outside Australia. They claim to have seen specimens with the typical Australian-type V. glabrata morphology from India, Burma, Java and Singapore, and I can add material from Sulawesi to that list (Ham 4; Boschproef station 6038). They (and I also) noted that in some otherwise typical and non-Australian V. glabrata specimens, the ovary hairiness varies from being glabrous to having some hairs at the apex. Given that there are numerous intermediates between V. glabrata and V. helogiton (including the isotype specimen of V. helogiton) and that none of the characters quoted by Munir seems to be constant, V helogiton cannot therefore be recognised as separate from V glabrata. The flowers are visited by bees (van Balgooy 2306).
Flowering, Aug. - Dec.; fruiting, Aug. - March.
Australia, Groote Eylandt, (Bennets 2319) Brown s.n. (lectotype: MEL!; isolectotype: BM! MEL! designated by Munir (1987)). Australia, Groote Eylandt, (Bennets 2319) Brown s.n. (lectotype: MEL!; isolectotype: BM! MEL!). Designated by Munir (1987).
(Unpublished ones only). Indonesia: Java: Banges (Koorders 27046b). South Central Timor: Kle’o (Walsh 214). North Sulawesi: Wolato bungango (Church & Ismail 28). Malaysia: Meroko (Meh 17872). Kandotu and Anpon (Indonesia: North Papua) (Kurata 1947). Nagal-egal (Amele language; Papua New Guinea, Sepik Distr.) (Robbins 2508).

The fruits are eaten on Timor (Walsh 214).

Native to:

Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, East Himalaya, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Marianas, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Philippines, Queensland, Solomon Is., Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam, Western Australia

Vitex glabrata R.Br. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2004 Church [28], Indonesia K000223198
Jan 1, 2004 Ridsdale, C.E. [SMHI 348], Philippines K000223199
Jan 1, 2004 Ridsdale, C.E. [SMHI 342], Philippines K000223200
Jan 1, 2004 Godefroy-Lebeuf, M. [942], Cambodia K000184577
Jan 1, 2004 Geesink [4976], Thailand K000182616
Jan 1, 2004 Majumder [87B], Bangladesh K000184594
Jan 1, 2004 Majumder, S. [87A], Bangladesh K000184595
Jan 1, 2004 Hooker, J.D. [170], India K000184596
Jan 1, 2004 Clarke, C.B. [10/77], India K000184597
Jan 1, 2004 Kwae Noi River Basin Exp. [99], Thailand K000184578
Jan 1, 2004 Mah, J, [17872], Malaysia K000222721
Jan 1, 2004 Curtis [1071], Malaysia K000184586
Jan 1, 2004 Phusomsaeng [238], Thailand K000270825
Jan 1, 2004 Soejarto [10789], Laos K000223293
Jan 1, 2004 Horsfield, T. [s.n.], Indonesia K000270075
Jan 1, 2004 Horsfield, T. [s.n.], Indonesia K000270923
Jan 1, 2004 Hams [4], Indonesia K000270922
Jan 1, 2004 Kostermans [23907], Indonesia K000270937
Jan 1, 2003 Netherlands Indies For. Serv. [bb25755], Indonesia K000182759
Jan 1, 2003 Merrill, E.D. [9330], Philippines K000182764
Jan 1, 2003 Lam, H.J. [1144], Indonesia K000183553
Jan 1, 2003 Williams, R.S. [2949], Philippines K000182757
Jan 1, 2003 Miranda, D.P. [20771], Philippines K000182763
Jan 1, 2003 Gaerlan [4821], Philippines K000182760
Jan 1, 2003 Razon, M.S. [23671], Philippines K000182756
Jan 1, 2002 Brass, L.J. [8464], Papua New Guinea K000183551
Jan 1, 2002 Hollrung, M. [708], Papua New Guinea K000183552
Jan 1, 2002 Henty, E.E. [NGF49346], Papua New Guinea K000183555
Jan 1, 2002 Hollrung, M. [672], Papua New Guinea K000182765 isotype
Jan 1, 2002 Katik, P. [NGF37970], Papua New Guinea K000183554
Jan 1, 2002 Katik, P. [NGF46595], Papua New Guinea K000183550
Wallich, N. [1749], India K000881879 syntype
Jan 1, 2003 Klemme, W. [19546], Philippines Vitex nitida K000182762 syntype
Jan 1, 2003 Whitford, H.N. [9490], Philippines Vitex pentaphylla K000182758 isosyntype
Jan 1, 2007 Koorders, H. [19553b], Indonesia Vitex minahassae K000705670 Unknown type material
Jan 1, 2007 Koorders, H. [1827], Indonesia Vitex minahassae K000705669 Unknown type material

First published in Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland.: 512 (1810)

Accepted by

  • Bramley, G.L.C. (2019). Flora Malesiana 23: 1-444. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
  • de Kok, R. (2008). The genus Vitex (Labiatae) in the Flora Malesiana region, excluding New Guinea Kew Bulletin 63: 17-40.
  • de Kok, R.P.J. (2007). The genus Vitex L. (Lamiaceae) in New Guinea and the South Pacific islands Kew Bulletin 62: 587-603.


Kew Bulletin

  • Brown, R. (1810). Prodromus floræ Novæ Hollandiæ et Insulae Van-Diemen. Taylor et socii, London.
  • Daniel, P. & Rajendran, A. (1995). Vitex bombacifolia, not a synonym of V. helogiton ( Verbenaceae). Taxon 44: 601 - 602.
  • Lam, H. J. (1919). The Verbenaceae of the Malayan Archipelago, de Waal, Groningen.
  • Munir, J. (1987). A taxonomic revision of the genus Vitex L. ( Verbenaceae) in Australia. J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 10: 31 - 79.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • GBIF (2008- continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.

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