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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[FTEA]

Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or small tree, 1.2–7.5 m. tall, with rough bark, or pyrophytic herb to small shrub, 0.3–1.5 m. tall, forming patches 1 m. wide from a massive subterranean woody rootstock; stems chestnut or purplish, striate, shortly densely velvety pale ferruginous pubescent or quite woolly or sometimes finely pubescent, soon or tardily glabrescent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves fragrant if crushed, often in whorls of 3, 1–5(–6)-foliolate, often drying yellow-green, becoming subcoriaceous; leaflets round, elliptic or obovate to oblanceolate, 2–25 cm. long, 1.8–11.5 cm. wide, usually shortly acuminate at the apex, rounded, cordate or cuneate at the base, very coarsely shallowly crenate, ± glabrous above and rather shining save for venation with pubescence as on the stems, densely velvety beneath at first or slightly rough above with very short scattered almost imperceptible hairs and densely puberulous on the nerves beneath or leaves entirely glabrous; very closely reticulate beneath with rather coarse veinlets which thicken with maturity, smooth or sometimes very finely reticulate above when dry; young leaflets have a very different-looking finer or even quite unraised venation; petioles 5–15 cm. long; petiolules 0.1–3 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences scented, few–many-flowered, 3–7 cm. long, densely pale ferruginous pubescent often with quite long hairs or ± glabrous; bracts linear, 3–6 mm. long; peduncle 3.5–12.5 cm. long; pedicels 1–3(–4) mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx densely pubescent and glandular; tube 2–4 mm. long; teeth triangular, 1–2 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla pink or white with violet or blue lips, densely velvety outside or tube glabrescent; tube 4–6 mm. long; biggest lobes 2–3 mm. long, 1.5–5 mm. wide, shorter lobes 1–1.5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary globose with few glands.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit, often white-spotted, oblong-ellipsoid, globose or obovoid, (0.8–)1.4–2.5 cm. long, 1–1.9 cm. wide, shiny, very woody; fruiting pedicels 2.5–3 mm. long; calycine cup 1–1.3 cm. wide, distinctly toothed, slightly hairy.

[FWTA]

Verbenaceae, H. Huber, F. N. Hepper & R. D. Meikle. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or small tree with the young parts densely pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers pilose, yellowish and blue-purple in long-peduncled cymes
Ecology
In savanna.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

Type
Type from Uganda.
Morphology General Habit
Shrub or small tree 3–8 m tall, or a suffrutex 0.3–1.5 m tall with annual stems from a massive underground woody rootstock; bark fissured, dark red-brown; older stems brownish-red, yellow and grey; young stems shortly tomentose with reddish-brown buds Shrub or small tree 3–8 m tall, or a suffrutex 0.3–1.5 m tall with annual stems from a massive underground woody rootstock; bark fissured, dark red-brown; older stems brownish-red, yellow and grey; young stems shortly tomentose with reddish-brown buds.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves aromatic when crushed, often 3-whorled, (3)5(6)-foliolate, often drying yellow-green; petioles 7–16 cm long, grooved; median petiolules 0.7–2.3 cm long; leaflets 6–17 × 4–9 cm, median leaflet largest, elliptic, narrow to broadly-obovate or oblanceolate, rounded or shortly acuminate at the apex, rounded, cordate or cuneate at the base, ± coriaceous, usually entire or sometimes coarsely shallowly crenate in upper half, often undulate, ± scabridulous or glabrous rather shining and not gland-dotted above, pubescent on the nerves beneath, conspicuously raised reticulate beneath Leaves aromatic when crushed, often 3-whorled, (3)5(6)-foliolate, often drying yellow-green; petioles 7–16 cm long, grooved; median petiolules 0.7–2.3 cm long; leaflets 6–17 × 4–9 cm, median leaflet largest, elliptic, narrow to broadly-obovate or oblanceolate, rounded or shortly acuminate at the apex, rounded, cordate or cuneate at the base, ± coriaceous, usually entire or sometimes coarsely shallowly crenate in upper half, often undulate, ± scabridulous or glabrous rather shining and not gland-dotted above, pubescent on the nerves beneath, conspicuously raised reticulate beneath.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary, slightly aromatic when crushed, of sturdy usually few-flowered compound dichasia, 5–19(30) cm long, tomentose with stiff patent cream-coloured hairs; bracteoles (0.2)0.6–1.2 cm long, linear Inflorescences axillary, slightly aromatic when crushed, of sturdy usually few-flowered compound dichasia, 5–19(30) cm long, tomentose with stiff patent cream-coloured hairs; bracteoles (0.2)0.6–1.2 cm long, linear.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx deep purplish-violet, obconical, 5-toothed, gland-dotted, pubescent to tomentose, accrescent in fruit; tube 2.5–3.5 mm long; teeth c. 0.7–1.5 mm long, erect; lobes 0.5–1.0 mm long, erect Calyx deep purplish-violet, obconical, 5-toothed, gland-dotted, pubescent to tomentose, accrescent in fruit; tube 2.5–3.5 mm long; teeth c. 0.7–1.5 mm long, erect; lobes 0.5–1.0 mm long, erect.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla 8–12 mm long, gland-dotted, pubescent to tomentose; tube greenish-cream or greenish-mauve, 4.5–6.5 mm long, curved; lobes at obtuse angle to tube, dull pale mauve to lilac.violet or brilliant purple sometimes creamy with mauve or greenish marks, middle lower lobe 4–3.2 × (4.5)4–3.6 mm Corolla 8–12 mm long, gland-dotted, pubescent to tomentose; tube greenish-cream or greenish-mauve, 4.5–6.5 mm long, curved; lobes at obtuse angle to tube, dull pale mauve to lilac-violet or brilliant purple sometimes creamy with mauve or greenish marks, middle lower lobe 4–3.2 × (4.5)4–3.6 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens scarcely exserted from corolla tube; filaments with glandular hairs Stamens scarcely exserted from corolla tube; filaments with glandular hairs.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary gland-dotted and ± truncate at apex, glabrous; style 4–5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Drupe 2 × 1.3–1.8 cm, ellipsoid, rounded at the apex, the base not enclosed by the enlarged calyx, purplish-black at maturity; fruiting calyx saucer-shaped, distinctly toothed, pubescent, not gland-dotted. Drupe 2 × 1.3–1.8 cm, ellipsoid, rounded at the apex, the base not enclosed by the enlarged calyx, purplish-black at maturity; fruiting calyx saucer-shaped, distinctly toothed, pubescent, not gland-dotted.
Note
The variation, in this taxon, in leaflet number and shape and probably texture has led to the recognition of two species in the past.  Plants in the north of its distribution range (subsp. madiensis ) have leaves 1–3-foliolate with leaflets broadly-obovate, more leathery and green-brown on drying; while plants in the south (subsp. milanjiensis ) have leaves 3–5-foliolate with leaflets narrowly-obovate, almost truncate apically and shortly acuminate at the apex, usually drying lemon-yellow.  Plants from Zambia and Malawi exhibit features intermediate between these extremes with leaflets 5 and broad or 3–4 and narrow-obovate.   V. madiensis subsp. milanjiensis can sometimes appear to be very similar to V. doniana , especially in leaflet shape, but leaflets in V. doniana are totally glabrous on the upper surface and the bracteoles are extremely reduced.  The reticulation in V. madiensis is darker than the leaflet blade, and not so in V. doniana .  The two species are very distinct in their flowers.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary gland-dotted and ± truncate at apex, glabrous; style 4–5 mm long.

Native to:

Angola, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Vitex madiensis Oliv. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Speke, Cpt. [649] K000192783
Raynal-Roques, A. [22333], Mali K000385992

First published in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 29: 134 (1875)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Harris, D.J. (2002). The vascular plants of the Dzanga-Sangha Reserve, Central African Republic: 1-274. National Botanic Garden (Belgium), Meise.
  • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Aubrév. Fl. For. Soud.-Guin. 504, 507, t. 115, 1-2.
  • F.T.A. 5: 322
  • Moldenke in Phytologia 5: 451
  • Pieper in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 62, Beibl. 141 (as 142): 61
  • in Trans. Linn. Soc. 29: 35, t. 131 (1890)

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 62 , Beibl. 141: 61 (1928).
  • Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas C : 339 (1895).
  • Estud. Ensaios Doc. Junta Invest. Ci. Ultramar [in Mendonça, Contrib. Conhec. Fl. Moçamb. II]: 173 (1954).
  • F.T.A. 5 : 322 (1900).
  • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 60 (1992).
  • F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 2 : 447 (1963).
  • K. Coates Palgrave, Trees South. Africa: 809 (1977).
  • Kew Bull. 56 : 196 (2001).
  • Kirkia 10 : 272 (1975).
  • M. Coates Palgrave, ed. 3 of K. Coates Palgrave, Trees South. Africa: 983 (2002).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Aubrév., Fl. For. Soud.-Guin.: 504, 507, t. 115/1,2 (1950).
  • Bak. in Flora of Tropical Africa 5: 322 (1900).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 200 (1956).
  • Geerling, Guide de Terrain Lign. Sahél. et Soud.-Guin.: 331, t. 92/4 (1982).
  • Gürke in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 359 (1895).
  • Huber in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2: 447 (1963).
  • Oliv. in Trans. Linn. Soc., Bot., 29: 134, t. 131 (1875).
  • Pieper in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 62, Beibl. 141: 61 (1928).
  • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 445 (1952).

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0