Genus:
Vitex L.

Vitex negundo L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Somalia to Mozambique, W. Indian Ocean, Iran to Japan and Marianas.

[KBu]

de Kok, R. (2008). The genus Vitex (Labiatae) in the Flora Malesiana region, excluding New Guinea. Kew Bulletin 63: 17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-007-9013-7

Conservation
Least concern.
Distribution
The present day distribution is from Java and the Philippines north to China and India. Reported to be introduced and cultivated in at least Java, Sumatra and the Philippines (Merrill 1918) and possibly in the whole of the Flora Malesiana area
Ecology
Growing in secondary forest (rarely in primary) and along roads and in wastelands, sometimes in thickets and up to 110 m altitude. Reported to be flowering and fruiting throughout the year.
Morphology General Habit
Trees or shrubs up to 4 m high
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 3 (– 6)-foliolate; central leaflet oblong-elliptic to narrowly elliptic, 3.4 – 7 × 1.2 – 1.6 cm, ratio 2.2 – 4.6; side leaflets 2.3 – 5 × 0.8 – 1.4 cm, ratio 2.8 – 4.3, apex acuminate, base cuneate, margin entire to dentate, glabrous above or with only hairs on the veins, velutinous whitish below, aromatic when crushed, 7 – 12 secondary veins; hairs appressed, with a powdery exudate on apical cell
Morphology Leaves Petiole
Petiole 2.2 – 3.2 cm long, round in cross-section, covered with minute curly hairs; petiolules 0 – 6 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Filaments 1.5 – 4 mm long, slightly to strongly didynamous, inserted halfway on the corolla tube, pale purple; anther c. 0.8 mm long, pale brown to violet
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5-lobed, clearly 5-ribbed; lobes 0.5 – 1 cm long, clearly developed, persistent, velutinous; glands absent to few; flowering calyx 1 – 1.5 mm diameter, erect; fruiting calyx 2 – 2.5 mm diameter, erect, covering the mature fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla 5-lobed, white or purple to blue-violet; covered with appressed hairs; glands few, white; lip oblong, 1.8 – 3 × 1.9 – 2.1 mm, apex rounded and reflexed, margin entire, two well-developed ridges at corolla mouth, blue; side lobes 1.2 – 1.5 × 1 – 2 mm, apex round, patent, blue; back lobes 1.2 – 1.5 × 1 – 1.2 mm, fused up to 10%, apex round, reflect to erect, blue; tube 2 – 3.5 mm long, infundibular
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary globose, 0.6 – 0.8 × 0.5 – 0.7 mm, glabrous; style 2.5 – 3 mm long; stigma lobes 0.1 – 0.5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit, fresh unknown; dried, ellipsoid, 2.5 – 4 × 1.8 – 2 mm, apex truncate, glabrous, smooth.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence paniculate, terminal, axis 6 – 25 cm long, angular in cross-section; flowers in dense side clusters on peduncles up to 8 mm; hairs dense, appressed; bracteoles scale-like, linear, up to 3 mm long, velutinous, usually persistent
Note
Most specimens from the Flora Malesiana area only have a few indentations in the leaves. This is unlike most specimens from mainland Asia (especially China), which can have frequent and substantial indentations in the leaves. These latter forms are sometimes cultivated in botanical gardens and other institutions and are often recognised as Vitex negundo var. incisa (Lam.) C. B. Clarke. The taxonomy of this species remains confusing on mainland Asia and more work is needed.
Type
From somewhere in India, [Linnaeus 811/8] (holotype LINN!).
Vernacular
Malaysia: Merbok (Abd. Samat 15). Sabah: Talaun mohou (Ranis Kung Kai 93). Philipines: Lagundi (Merrill 1918).

[KBu]
Use
The species is grown for ornamental and medicinal uses throughout the region.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Japan, Korea, Laccadive Is., Madagascar, Maldives, Marianas, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Is., Pakistan, Qinghai, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam, West Himalaya

Introduced into:

Alabama, Bulgaria, Cuba, Florida, Haiti, Jawa, Leeward Is., Philippines, Sumatera, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Windward Is.

Vitex negundo L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Aug 6, 2016 Ducloux [7663] K000939153 No
Jan 1, 2011 Tan [s.n.], Peninsular Malaysia K000735369 No
Jan 1, 2009 Ching, Y.P. et al. [S.62840], Sarawak K000248502 No
Jan 1, 2008 Yahud, J.et al. [S. 59961], Sarawak K000248515 No
Jan 1, 2006 Sonawe-ainakahata, H. [1236], Indonesia K000705671 No
Jan 1, 2005 Lörzing, J.A. [16011], Indonesia K000699609 No
Jan 1, 2005 Lamarck [s.n.], France K000223707 Unknown type material No
Jan 1, 2004 Kuntze, O. [7767], Malaysia K000222901 No
Jan 1, 2004 Griffth [s.n.], Malaysia K000222676 No
Jan 1, 2004 T [619], Malaysia K000222675 No
Jan 1, 2004 Poore, M.E.D. [2], Malaysia K000222674 No
Jan 1, 2004 Nur, M. [11946], Malaysia K000222677 No
Jan 1, 2003 Abd. Samat Abd. [15], Malaysia K000184576 No
Jan 1, 2003 Beccari, O. [s.n.], Malaysia K000182563 No
Jan 1, 2003 Afriastini, J.J. [1216 a], Indonesia K000182562 No
Jan 1, 2003 Chai, P. [45222], Malaysia K000182561 No
Jan 1, 2003 Haviland, G.D. [1631], Malaysia K000182560 No
Jan 1, 2003 Haviland, G.D. [2083], Malaysia K000182559 No
Jan 1, 2003 Haviland, G.D. [3552], Malaysia K000182558 No
Jan 1, 2003 Haviland, G.D. [3552 k], Malaysia K000182501 No
Jan 1, 1922 Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. [1876], Indonesia K000699608 No
Yii, P.C. [62885], Malaysia K000853726 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1744] K001114053 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1744], India K001114056 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1744] K001114054 Yes
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 1744] K001114059 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1744] K001114057 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1744] K001114055 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1744] K001114060 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1744] K001114058 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 638 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Barger, T.W. & al. (2012). New and noteworthy records for the flora of Alabama. Castanea 77: 257-269.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
  • de Kok, R. (2008). The genus Vitex (Labiatae) in the Flora Malesiana region, excluding New Guinea. Kew Bulletin 63: 17-40.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
  • Barger, T.W. & al. (2012). New and noteworthy records for the flora of Alabama. Castanea 77: 257-269.
  • Bramley, G.L.C. (2019). Flora Malesiana 23: 1-444. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Delipavlov, D. & Cheshmedzhiev, I. (eds.) (2011). Opredelitel na rasteniiata v Bulgariia: 1-590. Akad. Isd. Agrar. Univers. Plovdiv.

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Bulletin

    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images