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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Caroline Islands.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[KBu]

De Kok, R. (2007). The Genus Vitex L. (Lamiaceae) in New Guinea and the South Pacific Islands. Kew Bulletin, 62(4), 587-603. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20443390

Conservation
Not threatened.
Distribution
New Guinea north to South China and west to India. New Guinea via Indonesia and Philippines to South China and India.
Ecology
Primary to secondary forest or more rarely in submontane forest, often in swamps or periodically inundated areas. Soil: stony to sandy or loamy clay, sometimes over limestone, at 10 – 470 (– 1000) m altitude. Flowering from May to December; fruiting from July to April. Lowland primary to secondary rainforest on (stony to sandy) clay or limestone at 10 - 470 m altitude.
Seedling
A detailed description of the seedling is given in Burger (1972).
Morphology General Bark
Bark flaky, light to grey brown, slash straw to cream yellow; sapwood pale ochre; heartwood yellow to light brown; exudates colourless or ochre, little
Morphology General Habit
Tree (4-)6- 30 m high, bole (4-)7- 21 m high; 10 -150 cm DBH; buttresses, if present, up to 1.5 m high and up to 1 m in diameter
Morphology General Wood
For an anatomical description of the wood, see Fundter & Wisse (1977)
Morphology Leaves
Leaf (1 -) 3 - 5 palmate, elliptic to narrowly elliptic, central leaflet 7 - 15 x 3 - 5.6 cm, ratio 2.3 - 2.6; side leaflets 3.8 - 9 x 1.7 - 3.7 cm, ratio 2.2 - 4.5, glabrous to veins covered with appressed hairs, base cuneate to oblique, apex acuminate, margin entire; lower surface covered with many orange glands; venation pinnate, 5 - 14 main side veins, prominent beneath, sunken above
Morphology Leaves Petiole
Petiole 2 - 11 cm long, round in cross-section to latterly flattened, glabrous to covered with minute curly hairs, petiolules 1 - 3 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Filaments 4 - 6 mm long, slightly didamous, glabrous, except for tuft of erect simple multicellular hairs at base, inserted halfway on the corolla tube, slightly to clearly exceeding the corolla tube; anther c. 1 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5-lobed, lobes clearly developed, lobes up to 0.8 mm long, persistent, accrescent; hairs dense, appressed, simple; glands many, orange; flowering calyx 2 - 3 mm diameter, erect; fruiting calyx 4.5 - 6 mm diameter, patent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla 5-lobed, covered outside with appressed hairs, base glabrous, violet to white; glands few, orange to mauve; lip 2 - 6 x 2.5 - 4 mm, patent, spathulate, apex round to acute, margin crenulate, hairs appressed, pale blue with faint honey mark; side lobes 2 - 3 x 1 - 3 mm, patent, apex rotund to acute; back lobes 2 - 3 x 1.5 - 2.5 mm, erect; fused up to 10 - 50% of length, apex round to oblique; tube 5 - 6 mm long, infundibular
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 1 - 1.2 x 1 - 1.2 mm, globose, glabrous; glands, absent to few
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 4.5 - 11 mm long, glabrous; stigma 2-lobed, lobes c. 0.1 mm long, apex acuminate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit: fresh unknown; dried 6 - 8 x 4.5 - 6 mm, clavoid, smooth, deep purple to black
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence terminal, paniculate, 15 - 27 cm long, angular in cross-section; hairs dense to moderate, appressed, simple; bracteoles scale-like, triangular to linear, up to 4 mm long, velutinous, usually persistent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 4 (or fewer by abortion) per fruit
Note
The leaves of Vitex quinata can vary enormously in texture throughout its range. Usually the leaves have an herbaceous texture, which is very similar to most other species of Vitex. However, populations do exist that have much more leathery leaves. These populations are usually in areas with a more monsoonal type of climate. The name of V. padangensis Hallier f. is based on examples of the latter type from Sumatra. Vitex buddingii Moldenke is based on a specimen with an inflorescence without any flowers or fruits; despite this, given the location and the shape of the inflorescence it clearly is part of V. quinata. This species differs from the widespread Vitex cofassus in having usually palmate leaves, calyces that are as velutinous as the inflorescence apex, and a corolla lip with a truncated apex. Vitex cofassus always has an unifoliolate leaf, calyces that are clearly less hairy than the inflorescence, and a corolla lip that is clearly emarginate. The indumentum character can sometimes be difficult to interpret when dealing with old inflorescences. Some specimens (e.g., Mair, April 1945) only have one leaflet per leaf and are then very reminiscent of V. cofassus. However, they have all the other above-mentioned characters in common with V. quinata, and are therefore better placed in this species.
Phenology
Flowering from June to Dec.; fruiting from June to Oct.
Type
[China, Canton] Canto Sinar, Loureiro s.n. (holotype P [picture seen]).

[KBu]
Use
On the Indonesia island of Halmahera, the bark is mashed in cold water and used against lice (de Vogel 4394).

Native to:

Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, Caroline Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam

Vitex quinata (Lour.) F.N.Williams appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Sep 1, 2009 Middleton, D. et al. [4708], Thailand K000611046
Jan 1, 2009 Kostermans [K133], Indonesia K000248513
Jan 1, 2009 Kostermans [29092], Indonesia K000248514
Jan 1, 2008 Vogel [5760] K000248539
Jan 1, 2008 Lugas, L. [1044], Malaysia K000699372
Jan 1, 2007 Suzana, S. et al. [147550], Sabah K000479482
Jan 1, 2007 Teysmann, J.E. [4302], Indonesia K000699378 isotype
Jan 1, 2007 Teysmann, J.E. [4302], Indonesia K000699379 Unknown type material
Jan 1, 2007 Anonymous [24133], Indonesia K000699369 Unknown type material
Jan 1, 2006 Paie, I. [32062], Malaysia K000699384
Nov 1, 2005 Ramos, M. [1869], Malaysia K000183225
Jan 1, 2005 Wallich [1756.1], Myanmar K000223180 syntype
Jan 1, 2005 Bernard Lee [39830], Malaysia K000270948
Jan 1, 2005 Helfer [6068], Myanmar K000223287 syntype
Jan 1, 2005 McLelland [s.n.], Myanmar K000223289 syntype
Jan 1, 2005 Beccardi, O. [726], Indonesia K000223520 syntype
Jan 1, 2005 Maingay, A.C. [3308], Malaysia K000270141 syntype
Jan 1, 2005 Maingay, A.C. [3368], Malaysia K000270140 syntype
Jan 1, 2005 Loureiro [s.n.], China K000223708 Unknown type material
Jan 1, 2005 Altman [577], Indonesia K000223709 Unknown type material
Jan 1, 2005 Kostermans, A. [6347], Indonesia K000826873
Jan 1, 2005 Endert, F.H. [2225], Indonesia K000826870
Jan 1, 2005 Lajangah, J.K. [44560], Malaysia K000826890
Jan 1, 2005 Kostermans, A. [19268], Indonesia K000826874
Jan 1, 2005 Kostermans, A. [30A], Indonesia K000826671
Jan 1, 2005 Wirawan, N. [363], Indonesia K000826672
Jan 1, 2005 Rundi, M. [43001], Malaysia K000826893
Jan 1, 2005 Anonymous [s.n.], Malaysia K000665710
Jan 1, 2005 Dewol, S. [74963], Malaysia K000826892
Jan 1, 2005 Mungkim, O. [45115], Malaysia K000826891
Jan 1, 2005 Rundi, M. [43163], Malaysia K000826894
Jan 1, 2005 Bosproefstation [bb10912], Indonesia K000826667
Jan 1, 2005 Lam, H.J. [2019], Indonesia K000826665
Jan 1, 2005 Anonymous [s.n.], Malaysia K000665711
Jan 1, 2005 Kostermans, A. [21032], Indonesia K000826872
Jan 1, 2005 Kostermans, A. [13770], Indonesia K000826869
Jan 1, 2005 Muin Chai, F.R. [26903], Malaysia K000826871
Jan 1, 2005 Koorders, S.H. [19554], Indonesia K000826663
Jan 1, 2005 Pitty [63240], Malaysia K000699383
Jan 1, 2005 Netherlands Indies Forestry Service [27010], Indonesia K000826868
Jan 1, 2005 Krukoff, B.A. [4339], Indonesia K000689401
Jan 1, 2005 Bosproefstation [bb3027], Indonesia K000826666
Jan 1, 2004 Chew Wee-lek [892], Malaysia K000222892
Jan 1, 2004 Wray, L. [197], Malaysia K000222894
Jan 1, 2004 Wray, L. [197], Malaysia K000222893
Jan 1, 2004 Kochummen, K.M. [2608], Malaysia K000222711
Jan 1, 2004 Sow [55780], Malaysia K000222713
Jan 1, 2004 Mahamed, J. [2782], Malaysia K000222692
Jan 1, 2004 Kochummen, K.M. [2053], Malaysia K000270152
Jan 1, 2004 Gamble, J.S. [858a], Sikkim K000270126
Jan 1, 2004 Teo [384], Malaysia K000270142
Jan 1, 2004 Griffith [6064], Malaysia K000270082
Jan 1, 2004 Sow [55780], Malaysia K000222691
Jan 1, 2004 Griffith [6064], Malaysia K000270081
Jan 1, 2004 Chantaranothai, P. et al. [1116], Thailand K000270077
Jan 1, 2004 Teysmann, J.E. [s.n.], Indonesia K000270085 isotype
Jan 1, 2004 Ridley, H.N., Indonesia K000270073
Jan 1, 2004 Boschproefstation [bb. 7723], Indonesia K000270124
Jan 1, 2004 de Vogel, E.F. [1268], Indonesia K000223425
Jan 1, 2004 de Vogel, E.F. [4493], Indonesia K000223426
Jan 1, 2004 Koorders., S.H. [19548 b], Indonesia K000270086
Jan 1, 2004 Ham, Indonesia K000270123
Jan 1, 2004 Ramlanto [118], Indonesia K000270125
Jan 1, 2004 Jacobs, M. [5144], Malaysia K000270945
Jan 1, 2004 Kostermans, A. [10566], Indonesia K000270893
Jan 1, 2004 Kostermans, A. [6895], Indonesia K000270895
Jan 1, 2004 Angain [7762], Malaysia K000182770
Jan 1, 2004 Bousi, J. et al. [119882], Malaysia K000182768
Jan 1, 2004 Amin [118301], Malaysia K000182767
Jan 1, 2004 Angian, P. [3786], Malaysia K000182771
Jan 1, 2004 Maingay, A.C. [3308], Malaysia K000270138 syntype
Jan 1, 2004 Native [23494], Malaysia K000116077
Jan 1, 2004 Sinclair, J. [9256], Malaysia K000116078
Jan 1, 2004 Amin [116567], Malaysia K000182854
Jan 1, 2004 Shea [76199], Malaysia K000270941
Jan 1, 2004 Griffith [s.n.], Malaysia K000270139 syntype
Jan 1, 2004 Maullon [6718], Malaysia K000182769
Jan 1, 2004 Amin [121172], Malaysia K000270890
Jan 1, 2004 Shea [76233], Malaysia K000182766
Jan 1, 2004 Griffith [s.n.], Malaysia K000270137 syntype
Jan 1, 2004 Larsen, K. [33443], Thailand K000223298
Jan 1, 2004 Burley, J.S. et al. [4161], Indonesia K000270074
Jan 1, 2004 Amin [117306], Malaysia K000270904
Jan 1, 2004 Lajangah, J.K. [44403], Malaysia K000116136
Jan 1, 2004 Clemens, M.S. [10274], Malaysia K000116135
Jan 1, 2004 Amin [121037], Malaysia K000270903
Jan 1, 2003 Wenzel, C.A. [2523], Philippines K000182841
Jan 1, 2003 Merrill, E.D. [2852], Philippines K000182847
Jan 1, 2003 Binideh, P. [55812], Malaysia K000182855
Jan 1, 2003 Aban [67125], Malaysia K000182928
Jan 1, 2003 Dewol [109287], Malaysia K000182933
Jan 1, 2003 Muin Chai, F.R. [26696], Malaysia K000182934
Jan 1, 2003 Wilford, H.N. [1335], Philippines K000182846
Jan 1, 2003 Tarmiji [84157], Malaysia K000182927
Jan 1, 2003 Babaran, S. [26143], Philippines K000182860
Jan 1, 2003 Wenzel, C.A. [2523], Philippines K000182842
Jan 1, 2003 Wenzel, C.A. [2912], Philippines K000182840
Jan 1, 2003 Aduk, M. [117158], Malaysia K000182929
Jan 1, 2003 Amin [106801], Malaysia K000182931
Jan 1, 2003 Madani, L. [47191], Malaysia K000182930
Jan 1, 2003 Borden, T.E. [3059], Philippines K000182845
Jan 1, 2003 Ramos, M. [23485], Philippines K000182839
Jan 1, 2003 Cuming, H. [686], Philippines K000182843
Jan 1, 2003 Lorenzo, Z. [35522], Philippines K000182859
Jan 1, 2003 Gibot, A. [99615], Malaysia K000182856
Jan 1, 2003 Sie, P. [35397], Malaysia K000182773
Jan 1, 2003 Wenzel, C.A. [2563], Philippines K000182844
Jan 1, 2003 Amin [94597], Malaysia K000182932
Jan 1, 2003 Reynoso, E.J. [87800], Philippines K000182836
Jan 1, 2003 Lee, B. [39804], Malaysia K000182772
Jan 1, 2003 Krispinus, F. [120219], Malaysia K000182618
Jan 1, 2003 Amin [116237], Malaysia K000182853
Jan 1, 2003 Elmer, A.D.E. [11602], Philippines K000182838
Jan 1, 2003 Endert, F.H. [1490], Indonesia K000182935
Jan 1, 2003 Wenzel, C.A. [3430], Philippines K000182864
Jan 1, 2003 Mamit, J.D. [32636], Malaysia K000182774
Oct 1, 2002 Tadong, D. [332], Malaysia K000699382
Jan 1, 2002 Hildebrand [274 (bb. 33470)], Indonesia K000183561
Jan 1, 2002 Aet [238], Indonesia K000183563
Jan 1, 2002 Brouwer, A. [2537], Indonesia K000183562
Jan 1, 2002 Dept. of Argriculture [A 16], Papua New Guinea K000183565
Jan 1, 2002 Croft, J.R. [41409], Papua New Guinea K000183559
Jan 1, 2002 Hartley, T.G. [10082], Papua New Guinea K000183558
Jan 1, 2002 Hartley, T.G. [11350], Papua New Guinea K000183557
Jan 1, 2002 Henty, E.E. [27480], Papua New Guinea K000183556
Jan 1, 2002 Chan, N.K. [7745], China Southeast K000182848
Jan 1, 2002 Dr. King's Collector [10406], Malaysia K000270724
Jan 1, 2002 Dr. King's Collector [10406], Malaysia K000270723
Jan 1, 2002 Gaerlan [4896], Philippines K000182862
Jan 1, 2002 Soekanda and Ilham [33264], Indonesia K000183560
Jan 1, 2002 Hildebrand [101 (bb. 33334)], Indonesia K000183564
Jan 1, 2002 Rafael, B. [20746], Philippines K000182837
Jan 1, 2002 Barbon [8695], Philippines K000182863
Jan 1, 2002 Franco, F. [26871], Philippines K000182861
Jan 1, 1997 Andau, D. [313], Malaysia K000699374
Jan 1, 1997 Lugas, L. [883], Malaysia K000699377
Jan 1, 1997 Lugas, L. [1737], Malaysia K000699375
Jan 1, 1997 Soibeh, D. [811], Malaysia K000699376
Jan 1, 1997 Tadong, L. [476], Malaysia K000699373
Dec 1, 1949 Tangkilisan [200], Indonesia K000699370
Schlechter, F.R.R. [17557], Papua New Guinea K000182613
Ja'amat [35941], Malaysia K000665712
Dr. King's Collector [10063], Malaysia K000665713
Zainuddin, S. [17881], Malaysia K000665715
Horsfield, T. [4], Indonesia K000689397
Backer, C.A. [17102], Indonesia K000699590
Horsfield, T. [4], Indonesia K000699591
Vriese, W.H. de [s.n.], Indonesia K000699592
Zollinger, H. [603], Indonesia K000699593
Horsfield, T. [5], Indonesia K000689398
Vogel, E.F. de [1233], Indonesia K000689400
Vogel, E.F. de [4394], Indonesia K000699371
Tahir [0603], Malaysia K000665714
Robinson, H.C. [2450], Indonesia K000689399
Prescott, T.A.K. [32], Papua New Guinea K000939076
Anonymous [s.n.], Indonesia K000689396
Kok, R.P.J. de [147204], Malaysia K000699381
Talip, A. [47678], Malaysia K000699380
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1745] Vitex heterophylla K001114061

First published in Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 5: 431 (1905)

Accepted by

  • Beaman, J.H. & Anderson, C. (2004). The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
  • Bramley, G.L.C. (2019). Flora Malesiana 23: 1-444. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
  • de Kok, R. (2008). The genus Vitex (Labiatae) in the Flora Malesiana region, excluding New Guinea Kew Bulletin 63: 17-40.
  • de Kok, R.P.J. (2007). The genus Vitex L. (Lamiaceae) in New Guinea and the South Pacific islands Kew Bulletin 62: 587-603.

Literature

Kew Bulletin

  • Williams, F. N. (1905). Liste des Plantes connues du Siam. Bull. Herb. Boissier Ser. II, 5: 429 - 439.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Tagane, S. & al. (2017). Bokor National Park A picture guide of forest trees in Cambodia 4: 1-774. Center for Asian Conservation Ecology, Kyushu University, Japan.
  • de Kok, R.P.J. (2007). The genus Vitex L. (Lamiaceae) in New Guinea and the South Pacific islands Kew Bulletin 62: 587-603.

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin
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Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0