de Kok, R. (2008). The genus Vitex (Labiatae) in the Flora Malesiana region, excluding New Guinea. Kew Bulletin 63: 17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-007-9013-7
- New Guinea north to South China and west to India. New Guinea via Indonesia and Philippines to South China and India.
- Primary to secondary forest or more rarely in submontane forest, often in swamps or periodically inundated areas. Soil: stony to sandy or loamy clay, sometimes over limestone, at 10 – 470 (– 1000) m altitude. Flowering from May to December; fruiting from July to April. Lowland primary to secondary rainforest on (stony to sandy) clay or limestone at 10 - 470 m altitude.
- The leaves of Vitex quinata can vary enormously in texture throughout its range. Usually the leaves have an herbaceous texture, which is very similar to most other species of Vitex. However, populations do exist that have much more leathery leaves. These populations are usually in areas with a more monsoonal type of climate. The name of V. padangensis Hallier f. is based on examples of the latter type from Sumatra. Vitex buddingii Moldenke is based on a specimen with an inflorescence without any flowers or fruits; despite this, given the location and the shape of the inflorescence it clearly is part of V. quinata. This species differs from the widespread Vitex cofassus in having usually palmate leaves, calyces that are as velutinous as the inflorescence apex, and a corolla lip with a truncated apex. Vitex cofassus always has an unifoliolate leaf, calyces that are clearly less hairy than the inflorescence, and a corolla lip that is clearly emarginate. The indumentum character can sometimes be difficult to interpret when dealing with old inflorescences. Some specimens (e.g., Mair, April 1945) only have one leaflet per leaf and are then very reminiscent of V. cofassus. However, they have all the other above-mentioned characters in common with V. quinata, and are therefore better placed in this species.
- [China, Canton] Canto Sinar, Loureiro s.n. (holotype P [picture seen]).
- Morphology General Habit
- Tree (4-)6- 30 m high, bole (4-)7- 21 m high; 10 -150 cm DBH; buttresses, if present, up to 1.5 m high and up to 1 m in diameter
- Morphology General Bark
- Bark flaky, light to grey brown, slash straw to cream yellow; sapwood pale ochre; heartwood yellow to light brown; exudates colourless or ochre, little
- Morphology Leaves
- Leaf (1 -) 3 - 5 palmate, elliptic to narrowly elliptic, central leaflet 7 - 15 x 3 - 5.6 cm, ratio 2.3 - 2.6; side leaflets 3.8 - 9 x 1.7 - 3.7 cm, ratio 2.2 - 4.5, glabrous to veins covered with appressed hairs, base cuneate to oblique, apex acuminate, margin entire; lower surface covered with many orange glands; venation pinnate, 5 - 14 main side veins, prominent beneath, sunken above
- Morphology Leaves Petiole
- Petiole 2 - 11 cm long, round in cross-section to latterly flattened, glabrous to covered with minute curly hairs, petiolules 1 - 3 cm long
- Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
- Inflorescence terminal, paniculate, 15 - 27 cm long, angular in cross-section; hairs dense to moderate, appressed, simple; bracteoles scale-like, triangular to linear, up to 4 mm long, velutinous, usually persistent
- Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
- Calyx 5-lobed, lobes clearly developed, lobes up to 0.8 mm long, persistent, accrescent; hairs dense, appressed, simple; glands many, orange; flowering calyx 2 - 3 mm diameter, erect; fruiting calyx 4.5 - 6 mm diameter, patent
- Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
- Corolla 5-lobed, covered outside with appressed hairs, base glabrous, violet to white; glands few, orange to mauve; lip 2 - 6 x 2.5 - 4 mm, patent, spathulate, apex round to acute, margin crenulate, hairs appressed, pale blue with faint honey mark; side lobes 2 - 3 x 1 - 3 mm, patent, apex rotund to acute; back lobes 2 - 3 x 1.5 - 2.5 mm, erect; fused up to 10 - 50% of length, apex round to oblique; tube 5 - 6 mm long, infundibular
- Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
- Filaments 4 - 6 mm long, slightly didamous, glabrous, except for tuft of erect simple multicellular hairs at base, inserted halfway on the corolla tube, slightly to clearly exceeding the corolla tube; anther c. 1 mm long
- Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
- Ovary 1 - 1.2 x 1 - 1.2 mm, globose, glabrous; glands, absent to few
- Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
- Style 4.5 - 11 mm long, glabrous; stigma 2-lobed, lobes c. 0.1 mm long, apex acuminate
- Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
- Fruit: fresh unknown; dried 6 - 8 x 4.5 - 6 mm, clavoid, smooth, deep purple to black
- Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
- Seeds 4 (or fewer by abortion) per fruit
- Morphology General Wood
- For an anatomical description of the wood, see Fundter & Wisse (1977)
- A detailed description of the seedling is given in Burger (1972).
- Flowering from June to Dec.; fruiting from June to Oct.
- Not threatened.
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/62019905/62019907
- LC - least concern
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