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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Pacific.
Vitex rotundifolia

[KBu]

De Kok, R. (2007). The Genus Vitex L. (Lamiaceae) in New Guinea and the South Pacific Islands. Kew Bulletin, 62(4), 587-603. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20443390

Conservation
Not threatened.
Cytology
Cytology 2n = 32 or 34 (Wagner et al. 1999).
Distribution
North Australia east to at least Samoa, north to peninsular Malaysia and China. The subspecies is apparently absent from most of the central Pacific, but an isolated population occurs in Hawaii (see notes). Widespread from Samoa to the east coast of Australia, north to south China and Thailand (de Kok 2007).
Ecology
Growing on sandy seashores, coastal dunes and on sandbars along river (up to 10 km from the coast and as high as 200 m altitude). Sometimes growing just above the high water mark.
Morphology General
The whole plant has a strong smell of cats (van Royen 10192)
Morphology General Habit
Prostrate to small erect shrub, 15 - 60 cm high, sometimes forming dense mats of several meters diameter, rooting at nodes
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 1(- 3) palmate, round to obovate or obovate-spathulate, central leaflet 1 - 6.5 x 1 - 4.5 cm, ratio 1 - 2, upper surface glabrous or with only few hairs on the veins, lower surface velutinous, base cuneate, apex rounded to acute, rarely slightly emarginate, margin entire, aromatic when crushed; upper surface green; lower surface pale green to grey-green or silvery; venation pinnate, 4 - 7(- 9) slightly prominent side veins visible on both surfaces; hairs simple, appressed, sometimes with powdery wax
Morphology Leaves Petiole
Petiole 3 - 12 mm long, round in cross-section; hairs velutinous, white, appressed, simple
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Filaments 5 - 10 mm long, equal, glabrous except for tuft of erect simple multicellular hairs at base, inserted at halfway to lower part of the corolla tube, clearly exceeding the corolla tube; anthers c. 1.5 - 2 mm long, black
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5 lobed (sometimes not obviously so), velutinous, weakly 5-ribbed, slightly accrescent, lobes up to 1.5 mm long; hairs appressed, simple; glands few; flowering calyx 3 - 4 mm diameter erect; fruiting calyx 3.5 - 4.5 mm diameter, erect
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla (4 -)5 lobed, covered outside with appressed hairs, base glabrous, (purplish-) blue to white, sometimes smells as lavender; glands many, white; lip 4 - 7 x 4 - 4.5 mm, spathulate, apex round to truncated, margin entire, hairs concentrated at base; side lobes 3 - 4.2 x 2 - 3 mm, reflexed, apex round; back lobes 3 - 3.5 x 3 - 3.5 mm, reflexed to erect, fused from 10- 100% of total length, apex acute; tube 7 - 8 mm long, infundibular
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 1 - 1.5 mm diameter, globose, glabrous to a few hairs at apex, apex covered with glands
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 8 - 12 mm long, glabrous; stigma 2-lobed, lobes c. 0.5 mm long, apex pointed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit fresh unknown; dried fruit 3.5 - 7 mm diameter, globose, glabrous, smooth, turning first yellow or purplish, then black when mature
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence terminal and axillary, paniculate, 4 - 13 cm long, angular; hairs dense, appressed, simple
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts usually reduced relative to leaves; bracteole triangular to linear, up to 4 mm long, velutinous, usually persistent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed 4 (or fewer by abortion) per fruit
Note
One of the main traditional criteria distinguishing this taxon from Vitex trifolia spp. trifolia is the number of leaflets per leaf. V. trifolia spp. litoralis is supposed to have only one leaflet, whereas V. trifolia spp. trifolia is supposed to have three to five leaflets. As many authors have commented before (see Mabberley & de Kok 2004), this character is not stable between these two taxa and specimens with 1 - 5 leaflets are very common. The name Vitex rotundifolia var. heterophylla Makino is based on this variation. The variation in leaf size and shape within this taxon is considerable, and the Hawaii populations are particularly interesting in this respect. These populations seem to be geographically isolated from the rest of the subspecies, with the nearest other populations in Samoa. Furthermore, the leaves of the Hawaii specimens seem to be part of the larger and rounder part of the general leaf shape spectrum. Leaves on the young shoots, however, are similar in size and shape to the leaves of other populations (see Heller 2731).
Phenology
Flowering and fruiting from June to Jan.
Type
[Indonesia] Lesser Sunda Island, Kisar, E of Wonreli, 22 March 1939, Bloembergen 3894 (holotype L!). Indonesia, Lesser Sunda Is., Kisar, E of Wonreli, 22 April 1939, Bloembergen 3894 (holotype L!).
Vernacular
Malaysia, Kelantan: Gunong pantai (Soepadmo & Suhaimi 158) or Dĕmunla (Corner 25784). Indonesia: Western Flores: Wora tach (Schmutz s.n.).

Native to:

Borneo, China North-Central, China Southeast, Fiji, Hawaii, India, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Korea, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Manchuria, Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Philippines, Queensland, Samoa, Society Is., South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Western Australia

Vitex rotundifolia L.f. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Suppl. Pl.: 294 (1782)

Accepted by

  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Not accepted by

  • Barger, T.W. & al. (2012). New and noteworthy records for the flora of Alabama Castanea 77: 257-269. [Cited as Vitex trifolia subsp. litoralis.]
  • Bramley, G.L.C. (2019). Flora Malesiana 23: 1-444. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta. [Cited as Vitex trifolia subsp. litoralis.]
  • Franck, A.R., Anderson, L.C., Burkhalter, J.R. & Dickman, S. (2016). Additions to the flora of Florida, U.S.A. (2010-2015) Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10: 175-190. [Cited as Vitex trifolia subsp. litoralis.]
  • Mabberley, D.J. & De Kok, R.P.J. (2004). Labiatae Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 25: 20-141. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. [Cited as Vitex trifolia subsp. litoralis.]

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Bramley, G.L.C. (2019). Flora Malesiana 23: 1-444. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Turner, I.M., Xing, F. & Corlett, R.T. (2000). An annotated check-list of the vascular plants of the South China Sea and its shores The Raffles bulletin of Zoology, Suppl. 8: 23-116.
  • de Kok, R.P.J. (2007). The genus Vitex L. (Lamiaceae) in New Guinea and the South Pacific islands Kew Bulletin 62: 587-603.

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/