Family:
Araceae Juss.

Dracunculus vulgaris Schott

This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Central Europe to W. & SW. Turkey, NE. Algeria.

[CATE]

CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

General Description
Moderate to very robust, solitary to clump-fonning herb to 2 m. Tuber 5-12 x 3-6 cm, solitary, sometimes producing offsets from adventitious buds. Pseudostem 35-150 x 3-9 cm, pale to mid-grey-green with numerous jagged dark purple to almost black markings. LEAVES 10-21 x 18-45 cm, bright mid- to deep green, occasionally with conspicuous white streaks. INFLORESCENCE 25-135 cm in total length, smelling strongly of dung and carrion when newly opened; peduncle mostly enclosed by the pseudostem, visible portion 5-18 x 2-5 cm, concolorous mid-green; spathe tube 8-15 x 3-7 cm, oblong-cylindric to ellipsoid, convolute, exterior mid-green, slightly glaucous, rarely pale greenish white or dirty yellowish, interior deep purple, sometimes white to cream towards the opening; spathe limb 17-110 x 8-34 cm, ovate-lanceolate to oblong-triangular, acuminate, exterior mid- to dark green, margins and outer parts of limb usually stained deep purple, rarely pale greenish white or dirty yellowish, interior deep velvety purple, rarely greenish white or dirly yellowish, very rarely with conspicuous white, lilac and purple marbling; spadix 24-134 cm in total length; spadix appendix 20-128x 1.5-7 cm, stipitate, stout-cylindric to fusiform, larger appendices often strongly flattened laterally, deep glossy purple, rarely lilac, stipe deep purple, rarely white. Flowers; pistillate flowers arranged in an oblong-fusiform zone 2-4 x 1.5-3 cm, ovary oblong 2-3.4 x 1.5 -2mm, cream to yellow green, stylar region purple, stigma 0.5-0.75 x 0.3-0.5 mm, subcapitate, papillate, cream; interstice 1-5 mm long, cream; pistillodes present or absent, 1.5-3 x 0.5-1 mm, peg-like, cream; staminate flowers arranged in an oblong to onblong-fusiform zone 2-5 x 1.5-3, anthers 1.5-2 x 2-2.5, dark yellow, thecae stained mid-purple apically. INFRUCTESCENCE 4-12 x 3-5 cm, comprised of c. 60-80 berries, sometimes partially to completely encased in the dry spathe tube remnants; berries obovoid, 3-5 x 4-7 mm, orange-red when ripe. Seed compressed globose, 3-4 mm diameter., pale brown. Chromosome count 2n = 28
Diagnostic
Although the inflorescence of D. canariensis is superficially similar to that D. vulgaris it appears that D. canariensis has evolved in association with a difierent pollinator. The pale spathe limb, yellow spadix appendix and semen-like odour attract small flies, wasps and small bees (Boyce, pers. obs.) The spathe tube gapes at the front and allows insects direct access to the flowers whereas in D. vulgaris the potential pollinators (large flies, Staphylinid and Scarabidinid beetles) enter the spathe tube and gain access to the flowers by descending the spadix appendix.
Distribution
Distribution. Balkans, Aegean Islands, SW Turkey. Collections from Italy are possibly introduced; material from further west and from North Africa almost certainly represents introductions.
Habitat
Ecology. Maquis, garrigue, undisturbed olive groves, waste land.

Native to:

Albania, Algeria, Bulgaria, Corse, East Aegean Is., Greece, Italy, Kriti, Sardegna, Sicilia, Turkey, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

France, Great Britain, Portugal

Dracunculus vulgaris Schott appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jun 11, 1964 Redhead, E.M. K000499437 Yes
Jun 11, 1964 Redhead, E.M. K000499438 Yes
25760.000 No
Boyce, P. [19], Greece 49822.000 No
Boyce, P. [19], Greece 51381.000 No
54019.000 No
Turkey 54137.000 No
Atchley, S.C. [s.n.], Greece K000480396 No
s.coll. [s.n.], Greece K000480397 No
Ingoldby, C.M. [586], Turkey K000480402 No
Price, W.R. [1092], Turkey K000480405 No
Ascherson, P. [813], Turkey K000480406 No
Tedd, H.G. [1372], Greece K000480394 No
Atchley, S.C. [642], Greece K000480389 No
Stainton, J.D.A. [7504], Greece K000480377 No
Stainton, J.D.A. [7504], Greece K000480378 No
Lieber [s.n.], Kriti K000480386 Yes
Harris, G.W. [257], Greece K000480379 No
Tedd, H.G. [1372], Greece K000480395 No
Atchley, S.C. [1393], Greece K000480387 No
s.coll. [s.n.], Greece K000480400 No
Bornmüller, J. [10030], Turkey K000480403 No
Atchley, S.C. [642], Greece K000480392 No
Bornmüller, J. [10030], Turkey K000480404 No
Platt, J.W.O. [215], Greece K000480380 No
Atchley, S.C. [642], Greece K000480388 No
Heldreich [s.n.], Greece K000480399 No
s.coll. [s.n.], Greece K000480398 No
Brummit, R.K. [s.n.] 76579.000 No
Tedd, H.G. [1372], Greece K000480393 No
Aug 27, 1986 Reverchon, E. [171], Greece Dracunculus creticus K000480382 No
Aug 27, 1986 Reverchon, E. [171], Greece Dracunculus creticus K000480384 No
Aug 27, 1986 Reverchon, E. [171], Greece Dracunculus creticus K000480385 No

First published in H.W.Schott & S.L.Endlicher, Melet. Bot.: 17 (1832)

Accepted by

  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

CATE Araceae

  • Boyce, P.C. 1994. The genera Dracunculus and Helicodiceros (Araceae: Aroideae). Thaiszia. 4: 175-182.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • CATE Araceae

    Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images