Balanites maughamii Sprague

First published in Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1913: 136 (1913)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is S. Tanzania to S. Africa. It is a tree and grows primarily in the desert or dry shrubland biome.

Descriptions

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/158067/759459

Conservation
LC - least concern
[IUCN]

Extinction risk predictions for the world's flowering plants to support their conservation (2024). Bachman, S.P., Brown, M.J.M., Leão, T.C.C., Lughadha, E.N., Walker, B.E. https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/nph.19592

Conservation
Predicted extinction risk: not threatened. Confidence: confident
[AERP]

Balanitaceae, Martin J.S. Sands. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2003

Morphology General Habit
Deciduous or semi-deciduous tree up to 20(–25) m high, with a spreading, rounded crown, rarely a low shrub 1.5–2 m high; trunk to 1.3 m in diameter, fluted; bark usually smooth, yellowish-brown, mottled or grey, but sometimes becoming rough, splitting longitudinally dividing into small, dark grey sections; branchlets and spines pubescent or finely puberulous, eventually glabrescent, the branchlets yellowish- to greyish-green, often becoming black on one side or in patches in the second year, sometimes deciduous leaving a swollen, woody scar.
Morphology General Spines
Spines axillary or rarely up to 5 mm above the axil or on older wood, (1–)3–6(–15) cm long, spines on flowering shoots usually absent or simple and 3–5 mm long, otherwise frequently branched, occasionally more than once, often appearing forked.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with stipules persistent, triangular, 1–3 mm long, 0.8–1.5 mm wide; petiole 0.8–5 cm long; petiolules 0.1–2.5 cm long; leaflets elliptic to broadly ovate or suborbicular, 2.4–12 cm long, 1.5–9.7 cm wide, usually asymmetrical, apex rounded, obtuse, acute to apiculate or shortly acuminate, base rounded or broadly cuneate, becoming coriaceous, glabrous or variably pubescent on both surfaces, eventually glabrescent; foliole 2–3 mm long, usually linear, eventually caducous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a (1–)3–7-flowered subfasciculate or umbellate cyme, 1–2 in a leaf-axil of 1-year old stems or several on an axillary, often leafy, shoot, variably tomentellous to pubescent or puberulous, indumentum yellowish-green to buff; peduncle absent or up to 1 cm long; pedicels 0.3–1.3 cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers 5-merous, often scented, sepals and petals reflexed after anthesis; sepals yellowish-green, ovate to obovate, 4–5.6 mm long, 2–3.2 mm wide, acute or rounded, tardily caducous, pubescent or densely puberulous outside, the glabrous margin broad; petals green or greenish-yellow, oblong-lanceolate to oblanceolate, 5–9 mm long, 1.5–2.5 mm wide, frequently with a contorted and glabrous tip, villous within; stamens 10, spreading, erect, anthers 1.2–1.9 mm long; ovary densely and stiffly hairy, 1 mm high; style 0.5–1.5 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit, usually one developing from an inflorescence, pale to reddish-brown when mature, oblong-ellipsoid to cylindrical and depressed at both ends or ovoid, 3.5–8 cm long, 2.2–3.7 cm wide, obtuse apically, often with 5 shallow grooves, elongating in early development, glabrous, eventually with a brittle surface, spongy and fibrous, dark and oily within with a hard cream-coloured endocarp; seed ellipsoid to fusiform, grooved, cream, up to 2.5 cm long, becoming loose in the mature fruit.
Distribution
DISTR. (of species as a whole) Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, South Africa
[FTEA]

Balanitaceae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Tree up to 20 m. high, with a fluted trunk up to 0·75 m. in diam.; branches of two kinds, some sterile and mostly spiny, others flower-bearing and unarmed or with only tiny spines; younger branches green and pubescent, older ones glabrescent, often lenticellate; spines of the sterile shoots (1) 3–6 cm. long, stout, usually ± regularly forked, rarely simple or with one of the branches shorter than the other.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petiolate; leaflets of the flower-bearing shoots ± asymmetric, 2·3–6 × 2·25–5·7 cm., lanceolate-elliptic, ovate or broadly ovate to circular, apex rounded or obtuse, rarely shortly acuminate, base broadly cuneate or rounded, coriaceous, densely pubescent to subtomentose on the lower surface, pubescent or rarely glabrous on the upper one; petiole 1–2·8 cm. long, stout, pubescent or glabrous; petiolules 0·4–1 cm. long, ± densely pubescent; leaflets of the sterile shoots, 6·5–8 × 5–7 cm. = asymmetric, broadly ovate to subcircular, apex obtuse and usually shortly acuminate, base ± broadly cuneate, rounded or very rarely subcordate, coriaceous, ± densely pubescent on the lower surface and glabrous on the upper one or glabrous on both; petiole 2·3–3 cm. long, stout, pubescent or glabrous; petiolules 0·6–1·2 cm. long, ±: densely pubescent at first, later usually glabrescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences of dense 3–7-flowered umbel-like cymes, pedunculate or often nearly sessile, ± densely yellowish-tomentose all over.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers 1·5–2 cm. in diam.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals (4) 4·5–5·6 × (2) 2·4–3 (3·3) mm., coriaceous, densely yellowish- or greenish-pubescent to subtomentose outside, whitish-sericeous inside, caducous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals greenish or yellowish, (6·5) 7–8 (10) × 1·9–2·6 mm., oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate, ± densely villous on the upper surface, glabrous on the lower one, somewhat crumpled at the apex, scented.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens with anthers 1·2–1·6 mm. long; filaments (2·5) 3–3·2 (3·8) mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary densely covered with long ± stiff white hairs, very rarely glabrescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Drupe (3) 4–6 (7·5) × (2) 2·5–3 (3·5) cm., cylindric-ellipsoid, rarely subclavate, longitudinally 5-grooved (more distinctly so in the upper half), with a deep basal depression and a smaller apical one left by the pedicel and the style respectively, with a rather thick spongy mesocarp, endocarp woody (3–6 mm.) thick, exocarp crustaceous.
[FZ]

Sources

  • Angiosperm Extinction Risk Predictions v1

    • Angiosperm Threat Predictions
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0