Family:
Araceae Juss.

Philodendron minarum Engl.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Brazil (Minas Gerais, São Paulo).

[CATE]

CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

Phenology
Found in flower from December (postfloral inflorescences) to April and in fruit in October and January. Cultivated plants flowered from September to November.
Diagnostic
It is distinguished from P. cordatum mainly by the colour of the midrib and primary lateral veins, green petioles, greenish-yellow color of the spathe after anthesis and size of the flowers, which are much smaller in P. minarum.
General Description
Hemi-epiphytic, sometimes epilithic vine. Stem: greyish-brown, internodes 0.5-2, intravaginal squamules evident, vinaceous, 1-1.2 x 1 mm, triangular. Prophyll 21 - 25 x 2.5 - 3 cm, narrowly lanceolate, pale to green with vinaceous base and margin. LEAVES: Petiole 19-36 cm long, green sometimes with vinaceous extrafloral nectaries. Leaf blade 27-41 x 17-23 cm, ovate to ovate-triangular or widely ovate, apex acute, base cordate or subcordate or subsagittate, distinctly paler on lower surface, subcoriaceus; anterior division 19-26 x 17-23 cm, primary lateral veins 3-6, midrib and primary lateral veins bright cream, posterior divisions 10-14 x 8-12 cm, acroscopic veins 2-3 per side, basioscopic veins 1-3 per side; basal veins 5-6 per side, none or rarely 1 free to base; posterior rib naked for 2-3.2 cm. INFLORESCENCE: 1 per floral sympodium; peduncle 8.5 cm long. Spathe 10-16.5 x 2-2.5 cm, ovate, weakly constricted, green with vinaceous grooves outside and cream with vinaceous base inside. Spadix 10-12 cm long, male zone 6.3-7 cm long, cream, male sterile zone 1-1.3 cm long, female zone 4.5-4.8 cm, long, pale green. Flowers: stamens 0.6-0.8 x 0.4-0.6 mm; intermediate staminodes 1-1.2 x 0.4-0.5 mm; gynoecium 1.2-1.5 x 0.8-1.2 mm, ovoid, ovary 4-6-locular, ovules 4-8 per locule, placentation sub-basal. Berries 3.8-4.5 x 3-3.8 mm, oblong. Seeds: 0.8-1.5 x 0.5-0.8 mm, ellipsoid. Fig.1. D
Habitat
Epilithic or hemi-epiphytic in tropical forest, forest fragments or riparian vegetation.
Conservation
Least Concern (LC). This species is commonly found in ‘campo rupestre’ localities, being protected within the Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca and APA da Serra do Caraça. It occurs on rock outcrops in ‘campo rupestre’ and this habitat is not under particular threat at the moment.
Distribution
Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil.

[KBu]

Sakuragui, C., Mayo, S., & Zappi, D. (2005). Taxonomic Revision of Brazilian Species of Philodendron Section Macrobelium. Kew Bulletin, 60(4), 465-513. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/25070239

Conservation
Least Concern (LC). This species is commonly found in 'campo rupestre' localities, being protected within the Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca and APA da Serra do Caraça. It occurs on rock outcrops in 'campo rupestre' and this habitat is not under particular threat at the moment.
Distribution
Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil.
Ecology
Epilithic or hemi-epiphytic in tropical forest, forest fragments or riparian vegetation; 800 - 1250 m.
Morphology General Habit
Hemi-epiphytic, sometimes epilithic vine
Morphology Leaves
Leaf blade 27-41 x 17-23 cm, ovate to ovate-triangular or widely ovate, apex acute, base cordate or subcordate or subsagittate, distinctly paler on lower surface, subcoriaceus; anterior division 19 - 26 x 17-23 cm, primary lateral veins 3-6, midrib and primary lateral veins bright cream, posterior divisions 10-14 x 8-12 cm, acroscopic veins 2-3 per side, basioscopic veins 1-3 per side; basal veins 5-6 per side, none or rarely 1 free to base; posterior rib naked for 2 - 3.2 cm
Morphology Leaves Petiole
Petiole 19-36 cm long, green sometimes with vinaceous extrafloral nectaries
Morphology Leaves Prophyll
Prophyll 21 - 25 x 2.5 - 3 cm, narrowly lanceolate, pale to green with vinaceous base and margin
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium
Stamens 0.6 - 0.8 x 0.4 - 0.6 mm; intermediate staminodes 1-1.2 x 0.4-0.5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium
Gynoecium 1.2-1.5 x 0.8 - 1.2 mm, ovoid, ovary 4 - 6-locular, ovules 4-8 per locule, placentation sub basal
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Berries 3.8 - 4.5 x 3 - 3.8 mm, oblong
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
1 per floral sympodium; peduncle 8.5 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Spathe
Spathe 10-16.5 x 2-2.5 cm, ovate, weakly constricted, green with vinaceous grooves outside and cream with vinaceous base inside
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spadix
Spadix 10-12 cm long, male zone 6.3 - 7 cm long, cream, male sterile zone 1-1.3 cm long, female zone 4.5 - 4.8 cm, long, pale green
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 0.8 - 1.5 x 0.5 - 0.8 mm, ellipsoid.
Morphology Stem
Stem greyish brown, internodes 0.5 - 2, intravaginal squamules evident, vinaceous, 1-1.2 x 1 mm, triangular
Note

Philodendron minarum was described by Engler (1878) and was included in subgenus Meconostigma probably because of its habit, subcoriaceous leaves and decumbent stem. As Mayo (1991: 630) noted, it belongs to subgen. Philodendron and its placement in section Macrobelium is justified by the leaf shape and ovary structure. It was treated by Sakuragui (1998) as a synonym of Philodendron acutatum, but additional field and cultivation observations have proved it to be distinct in the following characters: broadly ovate leaf blade coloured dark green adaxially and pale green abaxially, midrib and primary lateral veins cream or very pale green adaxially and presence of intravaginal squamules.

It is distinguished from Philodendron cordatum mainly by the colour of the midrib and primary lateral veins, green petioles, greenish-yellow color of the spathe after anthesis and size of the flowers, which are much smaller in P. minarum. In the Serra do Caraça, populations living in two ecological situations were observed: hemi-epiphytic plants living in shaded areas, and epilithic plants exposed to sun. Despite the difference in habitat, only little morphological difference was observed between the two populations. Epilithic plants have greenish-yellow leaves and decumbent stems while the hemi-epiphytic ones have green leaves with scandent stems. This species has proved to be easy to cultivate, flowering many times under cultivation by the first author, but not easily producing fruits.

Phenology
Found in flower from December (postfloral inflorescences) to April and in fruit in October and January. Cultivated plants flowered from September to November.
Type
Brazil. Minas Gerais, Mun. Caldas, Regnell III 1291 (holotype B†, isotypes K, R).

Native to:

Brazil Southeast

Philodendron minarum Engl. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
May 1, 1986 Regnell, A.F. [[III] 1291], Brazil K000434543 syntype Yes
Krieger, L. [23548], Brazil K001183313 Yes
Burchell, W.J. [2338], Brazil K001183311 Yes
Harley, R.M. [20302], Brazil K001183317 Yes
Harley, R.M. [25490], Brazil K001183316 Yes
Harley, R.M. [20302], Brazil K001183318 Yes
Harley, R.M. [25490], Brazil K001183315 Yes
Forzza, R.C. [3690], Brazil K001183314 Yes

First published in C.F.P.von Martius & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Bras. 3(2): 166 (1878)

Accepted by

  • Gonçalves, E.G. (2010). The Araceae from the limestone outcrops in Central-Western Brazil Aroideana 33: 143-160.
  • Sakuragui, C.M., Mayo, S.J. & Zappi, D.C. (2005). Taxonomic revision of Brazilian species of Philodendron Kew Bulletin 60: 465-513.

Not accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Philodendron acutatum.]

Literature

CATE Araceae

  • Sakuragui, C.M., Mayo, S.J. & Zappi, D.C. 2005. Taxonomic revision of Brazilian species of Philodendron section Macrobelium Kew Bull.. 60: 465-513

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Gonçalves, E.G. (2010). The Araceae from the limestone outcrops in Central-Western Brazil Aroideana 33: 143-160.

  • CATE Araceae

    Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Bulletin

    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0