Echinochloa polystachya (Kunth) Hitchc.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America. It is used as animal food.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial. Basal innovations intravaginal. Culms decumbent; 100-300 cm long; 7-15 mm diam.; spongy; rooting from lower nodes. Culm-nodes swollen; glabrous, or pubescent. Lateral branches ample. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface, or hispid; with tubercle-based hairs. Ligule a fringe of hairs; 2-4 mm long. Leaf-blades 25-50 cm long; 20-35 mm wide. Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous. Leaf-blade surface glabrous. Leaf-blade margins spinulose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes numerous; borne along a central axis; unilateral; 2-11 cm long. Central inflorescence axis 15-30 cm long. Rhachis subterete; ciliate on margins. Spikelet packing crowded; 4 -rowed. Raceme-bases brief; pilose. Spikelets in threes. Fertile spikelets sessile and pedicelled; subequal. Pedicels 0.5-1 mm long; scabrous; tip discoid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; gibbous; cuspidate; 4.5-6 mm long; falling entire.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; gibbous; cuspidate; 4.5-6 mm long; falling entire.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; clasping; 1.9-4.2 mm long; 0.4-0.75 length of spikelet; without keels; 5-7 -veined. Lower glume surface scabrous. Lower glume margins ciliate. Lower glume apex cuspidate. Upper glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5-7 -veined. Upper glume surface hispidulous; hairy on veins. Upper glume apex cuspidate; muticous, or awned; 1 -awned. Upper glume awn 0-7.5 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets male; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5 -veined; hispidulous; cuspidate; muticous, or awned. Awn of lower sterile floret 2-15 mm long. Palea of lower sterile floret 1 length of lemma; scabrous; adorned on keels. Fertile lemma elliptic; gibbous; 2.5-5 mm long; indurate; much thinner above; shiny; without keel. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse; laterally pinched. Palea reflexed at apex; indurate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3; 1.5-3.6 mm long; orange.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp.
Distribution
Australasia: Australia. North America: south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
Reference
Paniceae. Fl Costaric 1994.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Amazonia, Andean, Guiana Shield, Caribbean, Orinoquia. Elevation range: 0–500 m a.s.l. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Bolívar, Casanare, Córdoba, Guaviare, Huila, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Vaupés, Vichada.
Habit
Herb.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 500 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
alemán, alemana, angola, canutillo, gramalote, pasto alemán, pasto de yulo

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.

Native to:

Argentina Northeast, Belize, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Florida, French Guiana, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Windward Is.

Echinochloa polystachya (Kunth) Hitchc. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Luetzelburg [27037], Brazil K000003887 Yes
Carvalho, J.H. [467], Brazil K000003888 Yes
Harley, R.M. [16273], Bahia K000003886 Yes
Carvalho, A.M. [2377], Bahia K000003885 Yes
Carvalho, A.M. [3170], Bahia K000003884 Yes
Spruce, R. [6445], Ecuador K000201695 Yes
Dusén, P. [11461], Brazil K001102364 Yes
Bona Nascimento, M.S. [1393], Brazil K001102345 Yes
Nascimento, M.S.B. [1241], Brazil K001102356 Yes
Pohl [1129], Brazil K001102342 Yes
Carauta, J.P.P. [5236], Brazil K001102359 Yes
Lowe, J. [4163], Brazil K001102350 Yes
Glaziou, A. [18646], Brazil K001102341 Yes
Prance, G.T. [12023], Brazil K001102349 Yes
Nascimento, M.S.B. [1214], Brazil K001102357 Yes
Dombrowski, L.T. [2418], Brazil K001102365 Yes
Hill, S.R. [13025], Brazil K001102351 Yes
Clayton, W.D. [4766], Brazil K001102360 Yes
Mueller, F. [277], Brazil K001102352 Yes
Trail, J.W.H. [1256], Brazil K001102348 Yes
Glaziou, A. [9057], Brazil K001102339 Yes
Burchell [2720], Brazil K001102340 Yes
Glaziou [4348], Brazil K001102343 Yes
Araújo, D. [188], Brazil K001102358 Yes
Graham Kerr, J. [s.n.], Argentina K001102353 Yes
Hatschbach, G. [34361], Brazil K001102362 Yes
Machado, A. [5062], Brazil K001102355 Yes
Hatschbach, G. [13621], Brazil K001102363 Yes
Glaziou [9057], Brazil K001102338 Yes
Spruce, R. [s.n.], Brazil K001102347 Yes
Klein [8628], Brazil K001102354 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.] K001102346 Yes
Richl [1265], Brazil K000309360 Yes
Hamilton, W.D. [47b], Brazil K001102344 Yes
Cordeiro, J. [1886], Brazil K001102361 Yes

First published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 22: 135 (1920)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Dempewolf, H., Eastwood, R. J., Guarino, L., Khoury, C. K., Müller, J. V. & Toll, J. (2014). Adapting agriculture to climate change: a global initiative to collect, conserve, and use crop wild relatives. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 38, 369-377.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0