Skip to main content
This species is accepted, and its native range is Africa to Arabian Peninsula.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Reed-like rhizomatous perennial; culms robust, 1–4 m. high, firm, erect.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades 8–60 cm. long or more, 2–25 mm. wide, stiff, glaucous; ligule a line of hairs; sheaths glabrous or hispid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence ovate to narrowly lanceolate with the racemes overlapping, or linear with the racemes ± distant, 8–40 cm. long, their rhachis glabrous or pilose; racemes simple or compound, 3–20 cm. long, straight, ascending, coarsely spiculate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets narrowly ovate to broadly elliptic, plump, 2.5–3.5(–4) mm. long, glabrous to hispid; lower lemma acute to acuminate, rarely with a subulate awn-point up to 3 mm. long; upper lemma 2–3 mm. long.
Habitat
Swamps and riversides, usually standing in water; 0–2400 m.
Distribution
K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 tropical and South Africa

[FZ]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Reed-like rhizomatous perennial.
Morphology Culms
Culms robust, 1–4 m. high, firm, erect; ligule a line of hairs.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence 8–40 cm. long, ovate to narrowly lanceolate with numerous overlapping racemes or linear with 4–10 ± distant appressed racemes; racemes 2–20 cm. long, simple or compound, straight, ascending, coarsely spiculate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 2.5–3.5(4) mm. long, narrowly ovate to broadly elliptic, plump, glabrous to hispid.
Inferior
Inferior lemma acute to acuminate, rarely with a subulate point up to 2 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Lemma
Superior lemma 2–3 mm. long. Inferior lemma acute to acuminate, rarely with a subulate point up to 2 mm. long.
Superior
Superior lemma 2–3 mm. long.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial. Rhizomes elongated. Culms erect; reed-like; 100-400 cm long. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface, or hispid. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades 8-60 cm long; 2-25 mm wide; stiff; glaucous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes borne along a central axis; simply spaced, or closely spaced; ascending; unilateral; 3-20 cm long; simple, or secondarily branched. Central inflorescence axis 8-40 cm long. Rhachis angular; glabrous on surface, or pilose on surface. Spikelet packing irregular; 4-6 -rowed. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic, or ovate; dorsally compressed; compressed slightly; gibbous; acute; 2.5-3.5(-4) mm long; falling entire.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic, or ovate; dorsally compressed; compressed slightly; gibbous; acute; 2.5-3.5(-4) mm long; falling entire.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; clasping; 0.3-0.4 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined. Lower glume surface glabrous, or hispidulous. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; membranous; without keels; 5-7 -veined. Upper glume surface glabrous, or hispidulous. Upper glume apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets male; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5-7 -veined; glabrous, or hispidulous; acute, or acuminate; muticous, or awned (rarely). Awn of lower sterile floret 0-3 mm long. Fertile lemma ovate; gibbous; 2-3 mm long; indurate; much thinner above; shiny; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex acute; laterally pinched. Palea reflexed at apex; indurate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3.
Distribution
Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, middle Atlantic ocean, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Arabia. Australasia: Australia. North America: Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, and northern South America.
Reference
Paniceae. FTEA.

[FWTA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

Morphology General Habit
A robust rhizomatous perennial up to 3·5 m. high, somewhat variable in size of spikelets and density of panicle
Ecology
On river banks, marshes or in open water, sometimes forming extensive meadows on flood plains.

Native to:

Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Costa Rica, French Guiana, Guatemala, Leeward Is., Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nepal, Nicaragua, St.Helena, Trinidad-Tobago, Vietnam, Windward Is.

Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.) Hitchc. & Chase appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Nov 1, 1960 Leau, O.B. [89], Mali K000386588
Drège [4242], South Africa K000282270 syntype
Zeyher, South Africa K000282271
Holub, E., South Africa K000282266 syntype
Buchanan, J. [1], South Africa K000282267
Rehmann, A. [5369], South Africa K000282268
South Africa K000282269
Busse [1068], Tanzania K000282400 isotype
Berhaut, R.P. [5612], Senegal K000282425
Berhaut, R.P. [5612], Senegal K000282424
Hildebrandt, J.M. [3350], Madagascar K000244739
Matthes, H.D.r. [14], Mali K000386582
Rogeon, J.-.F. [259], Mali K000386594
Davey, J.T. [126], Mali K000386595
Hagerup, O. [410], Mali K000386590
Yakuno, T. [5], Mali K000386580
Chevalier, A. [2173], Mali K000386592
Farrow, R.A. [55], Mali K000386583
Scholz [61], Burkina Faso K000386585
Yakuno, T. [3], Mali K000386579
Chevalier, A. [2179], Mali K000386591
Irvine, F.R. [4677], Burkina Faso K000386587
Chevalier, A. [2460], Burkina Faso K000386589
Farrow, R.A. [93], Mali K000386584
Scholz [116], Burkina Faso K000386586
Leclercq, A. [42440], Mali K000386593
Yakuno, T. [5], Mali K000386581

First published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 18: 345 (1917)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
  • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
  • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • A. Chev. in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 14: 18
  • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 405.
  • F.T.A. 9: 615
  • in Contrib. U.S. Nat. Herb. 18: 345 (1917)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
  • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • H?, P.-H. (2000). Câyc? Vi?tnam. An Illustrated flora of Vietnam, ed. 2, 3: 1-1020. Pham-hoang Ho, Montréal.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
  • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Robyns, W. (1934). Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 2: 9-386. Goemaere, Bruxelles.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A.V. Bogdan, A Revised List of Kenya Grasses p. 42 (1958).
  • Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 439 (1972).
  • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 65 (1965).
  • Edwards & Bogdan, Imp. Grassl. Pl. Kenya: 52 (1951).
  • Eggeling, Ann. list grasses Ug.: 16 (1947).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 441 (1956).
  • Hitchc. & Chase in Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 18: 345 (1917).
  • Hubbard, E.A. Pasture Plants 2: 22 (1927).
  • Jackson & Wiehe, Ann. list Nyasaland grasses: 37 (1958).
  • K.W. Harker & D.M. Napper, An Illustrated Guide to the Grasses of Uganda p. 27 (1960).
  • Robyns, Fl. Agrost. Congo Belge 2: 141 (1934).
  • Stapf in Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 615 (1920).
  • Troupin, Fl. Garamba 1: 34 (1956).

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0