Family:
Araceae Juss.

Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott

This species is accepted, and its native range is Costa Rica to S. Tropical America. It is used as animal food, a vegetable, a poison and a medicine, has environmental uses and for food.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 100 - 2000 m.
Distribution
Cultivated in Colombia.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Amazonia, Andean, Pacific. Elevation range: 300–1100 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Boyacá, Caquetá.
Habit
Herb.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, shrubland, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Malanga

[FTEA]

Araceae, S.J. Mayo. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

Morphology General Habit
Large fleshy herb with underground tuber and in large specimens a short, stout, aerial stem.
Morphology General Exudate
Cut tissues exude milky sap.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves rosulate; blade sagittate, up to ± 70 cm. long or more, 50 cm. broad, deep green above, paler and pruinose below with subacute basal lobes, horizontal to slightly pendent (not vertically pendent) from suberect, green to glaucous violet petiole to 100 cm. long or more.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Spathe
Spathe up to 30 cm. long; tube green, inflated, persistent, up to 8 cm. long; blade longer, creamy white to yellowish buff, erect, deciduous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spadix
Spadix slightly shorter than spathe, lacking sterile appendix.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers unisexual, lacking tepals.
Distribution
Native of tropical America (‘Cocoyam’, ‘Tannia’, ‘Yautia’, ‘Malanga’, ‘Majimbi’). Widely cultivated in Africa for the edible, starchy tuberthe taxonomy of the varieties and cultivars is very confused at presentnaturalized in Tanzania, e.g. E. Usambara Mts., Derema, Bogner 131 (K!)cult. Amani Nursery, Greenway 5949 (K!).

[CATE]

CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

Distribution

Antilles, mainly Jamaica and Hispaniola.

General Description

Herb up to 2 m tall, robust. Stems hypogeous in young plants, erect, cylindric, 7-9 cm in diameter, densely covered by brown fibers, producing cormels that are cylindric at base and globose at apex, adult plant producing a stout columnar stem, up to 15 cm diam. Leaves 4-7 per plant; petioles 80-160 cm long, green, poorly waxy, sheathed up to 1/2 of its length, sheath margins erect to slightly convolute; leaf blade 60-97 x 30-44 cm, subhastate in young plants, sagittate and ovate in mature plants, reflexed to sub-patent, semi-matte dark green adaxially, paler matte green abaxially, primary lateral veins 5-8 per side, arising at an angle of 45-80°, poorly discolorous to concolorous adaxially, concolorous abaxially, apex acuminate; basal ribs not denuded at all, basal lobes acute to cuneate at apex. Inflorescence 1-3 per axil, peduncle 16-17 x 1.5-2 cm, spathe 23-32 cm long, tube ovoid, 7-10 x 4-5 cm, clear green and moderately waxy outSide, whitish green inside, lamina 15-16 x 5.0-6.5 cm, ivory white in both surfaces, spadix 17-25 cm long, fertile male portion 9.5-13 x 1.3-2.2 cm, tapering to the apex to obtuse, sterile male portion 3-5 x 1.7-2.5 cm, white, only weakly dimorphic, female portion conoid, 4-6 x 1.5-2 cm, pale yellow.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
alín, batata, bore, chunga, mafafa, mafafa blanca, mafafa mija, mafafa morada, mafafa pata de gallineta, malanga, malangay, mija, nipachire, ocumo, otó, rascadera, rascadera morada, rascadera negra, rascadera rosada, yota, yota de picón, yota de sapito, yota de sol, yotica

[CATE]

CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

Distribution

Unknown.

General Description

Herb up to 1.15 m tall. Stems hypogeous or occasionally epigeous, rhizomatous, cylindrical, up to 7 cm in diameter and sometimes up to 5 cm tall, densely covered by brown fibers, producing sparse cormels. Leaves 2-5 per plant; petioles 60-100 cm long, golden green, poorly waxy, sheathed up to 1/2 of its length, sheath erect or slightly convolute; leaf blade 41-48 x 44-46 cm, sagittate in young individuals, sagittate to subhastate in mature plants, golden green to clear green abaxially, matte pale green abaxially, primary lateral veins 6-7 per side, arising at an angle of 80-85°, slightly discolorous to concolorous adaxially, concolorous abaxially, apex acuminate; basal ribs denuded for .3-1.5 cm, basal lobes slightly extrose, obtuse to round at apex. Inflorescences 1-3 per axil, peduncle 15-17 x .4-.5 cm; spathe 11-15 cm long, tube ovoid 6-7 x 4-6 cm, yellowish green outside, white inside, lamina 13-14.5 x 2.5-5 cm, ivory green in both sufaces; spadix 9.5-11.5 cm long, fertile male portion yellowish-white 6-7 x .7 cm, sterile male portion 1.5-2 x .8-1 cm, white, weakly dimorphic, female portion conoid, 2-3 x .8-1 cm, dark ferrugineous.

[CATE]

CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

General Description

Herb up to 1.8 m tall, robust. Stems hypogeous or occasionally epigeous, rhizomatous, cylindrical, up to 26 cm in diameter and sometimes up to 30 cm tall, densely covered by brown fibers, producing sparse turbinate cormels. Leaves 3-5 per plant; petioles 70-103 cm long, blackish-green, conspicuously waxy, slightly reddish at base, sheathed up to 1/3 of its length, sheath revolute; leaf blade 49-90 x 34-53 cm, cordate in young individuals, cordate to subhastate in mature plants, semi-matte blackish green abaxially, medium glossy green abaxially, primary lateral veins 8-10 per side, arising at an angle of 75-85°, slighly discolorous adaxially, concolorous abaxially, apex acuminate; basal ribs denuded for 0-1.5 cm, basal lobes turned backward or slightly extrose, round at apex. Inflorescences 1-3 per axil, peduncle 50-80 x .5-0,8 cm; spathe 30-36 cm long, tube 7-9 x 4-6 cm, blackish-green outside, white inside, lamina 15-18 x 6-9 cm long, yellowish-white on both sides; spadix 20-28 cm long, fertile male portion yellowish-white 10-12 x 1-2 cm, sterile male portion 5.5-6 x 1.5-2.5 cm, white, moderately dimorphic, female portion conoid, 5-6 x 1-1.5 cm, bright yellow.

[CATE]

CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

Distribution

Most ancient publications cited Para state (Northern Brazil) as the origin of this plant.

General Description

Plant up to 1 m tall. Stems always hypogeous, rhizomatous, cylindrical, up to 4 cm in diameter, moderately covered by brown fibers, producing sparse cormels. Leaves 3-4 per plant; petioles 64-90 cm long, blackish-green, conspicuously waxy, sheathed up to 1/3 of its length, sheath revolute; leaf blade 14-33 x 25-30 cm, subcordate to sagittate in young plants, sagittate or occasionally hastate in mature plants, usually with the apical half turned upwards, glossy blackish green adaxially, medium glossy green abaxially, producing an extopic inverted leaflet-like appendage at some medial point of the midrib, appendage varying from hook-shaped or cup-shaped to broadly leafy and undulated or even duplicate, rarely lacking in young plants, primary lateral veins 6-7 per side, arising at an angle of 55-60°, slightly discolorous adaxially, concolorous abaxially, apex acuminate; basal ribs denuded for 0-1.5 cm, basal lobes turned backward or slightly extroses, round at apex. Inflorescences unknown.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 300 - 1100 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Pacífico.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba

[CATE]

CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

General Description

Herb up to 1.7 m tall, robust. Stems hypogeous or occasionally epigeous and decumbent, rhizomatous, cylindrical, up to 15 cm in diameter and sometimes up to 10 cm tall, densely covered by brown fibers, producing sparse turbinate cormels. Leaves 5-6 per plant; petioles 104-130 cm long, green, sometimes red at base conspicuously waxy, sheathed up to 1/4 of its length, sheath margins erect to revolute; leaf blade 44-85 x 31-50 cm, triangular-subcordate in young individuals, cordate to sagittate or subhastate in mature plants, patent, semi-matte dark green abaxially, medium matte green abaxially, margins reddish or purplish, primary lateral veins 7-9 per side, arising at an angle of 50-70°, discolorous adaxially, concolorous abaxially, apex acuminate; basal ribs denuded for 1-3 cm, basal lobes acute to acuminate at apex. Inflorescences 1-5 per axil, peduncle 30-85 x 1-1,8 cm; spathe 27-38 cm long, tube 8-9.5 x 4-6 cm, reddish or pinkish green outside, white inside, lamina, 17-22 cm long, greenish-yellow at both sides, margins occasionally reddish; spadix 22-30 cm long, fertile male portion white 13-16 x 1.2-2.5 cm, obtuse to truncate at apex, sterile male portion 6-7 x 1.0-2.3 cm, pink, moderately dimorphic, female portion conoid, 6-8 x 1.5-1.8 cm, bright yellow.

[UPFC]
Vernacular
Mafafa, Rascadera

[CATE]

CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

General Description

Plant up to 1.6 m tall, but rarely reaching half of this size. Stems always hypogeous, rhizomatous, cylindrical, up to 7 cm in diameter, moderately covered by brown fibers, branching profuselly in well established plants, producing sparse globose-turbinate cormels. Leaves 3-4 per plant; petioles 30-98 cm long, green, never conspicuously waxy, usually brownish at base, sheathed up to 1/3 of its length, sheath convolute; leaf blade 32-67 x 19-40 cm, ovate in outline in both young and adult plants, semi-glossy green adaxially, clearer and matte abaxially, primary lateral veins 5--6 per side, arising at an angle of 50-60°, concolorous with blade at both sides, apex acuminate; basal ribs denuded for 2-4 cm, basal lobes slightly extrose, conspicuously acute at apex. Inflorescences 1-3 per axil, peduncle 30-110 x 0.3-0.5 cm; spathe 17.5 cm long, tube 4 x 2 cm, green outside, white inside, lamina 14.5 x 3 cm long, white in both sides; spadix 15 cm long, fertile male portion white 9 x 1 cm, sterile male portion 3.5 x 1.1 cm, pinkish, moderately dimorphic, female portion 2-3 x l cm, pale yellow.

[CATE]

CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

Distribution

This species has been considered from an unknown origin until a recent collection in the wild by me in Costa Rica.

General Description

Plant up to 1.6 m tall. Stems hypogeous in young plants, epigeous and decumbent in old plants, up to 16 cm in diameter, covered by brown fibers from old leaf sheaths, cormels occasional, stolons usually long and abundant. Leaves 4-6 per plant; petioles 80-134 cm long, violet, conspicuously waxy, sheathed up to 1/2 of its length, sheath margins convolute, reddish; leaf blade 69-113 x 45-67 cm, sagittate to subhastate, ovate to triangular in outline in both young and adult plants, usually reflexed, occasionally patent in plant in full sun, semi-matte medium green adaxially, paler matte green abaxially, margins violet, primary lateral veins 7-8 per side, arising at an angle of 70-850, strongly discolorous adaxially, discolorous violet abaxially, apex acuminate; basal ribs denuded for 2-3.0cm, basal lobes acute to cuneate. Inflorescence 1-3 per axil, peduncle 35-50 x 3-4 cm, spathe 39-42 cm long, tube ovoid, 12-14 x 5.5-7 cm, clear green tinged with purple and strongly waxy outside, whitish green inside, lamina 27-28 X 12-14 cm, yellowish green at both surfaces, margins tinged with purplish, spadix 35-39 cm long, fertile male portion 14-16 x 1.5-2 cm, tapering to the apex, sterile male portion 11-13 x 1.8-2.8 cm, white, female portion conoid, 10-12 x 1.8-2 cm, pale yellow.

[CATE]

CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

General Description

Herb up to 1 m tall. Stems hypogeous and decumbent, rhizomatous, cylindrical, up to 5 cm in diameter, densely covered by brown fibers, producing sparse turbinate cormels and numerous stolons. Leaves 5-6 per plant; petioles 21-90 cm long, blackish green, conspicuously waxy at apex, sheathed up to 1/2 of its length, sheath margins involute and sometimes yellowish; leaf blade 12-25 x 8-30 cm, sagittate to subhastate in both young and adult leaves, semi-matte blackish green adaxially, medium matte green abaxially, usually with large spots of yellowish tissues. Primary lateral veins 2-5 per side, arising at an angle of 45-80°, essentially concolorous in both surfaces, apex usually forming a small pocket that accumulates water and also with an apical filament, up to 8 cm long; basal ribs denuded for 0-1 cm, basal lobes extrose, apex obtuse at apex. Inflorescence unknown.

[CATE]

CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

General Description

Small to medium sized herb, up to 90 cm tall, stem hypogeous erect, up to 6 cm diam., sparsely covered by fibers, very few cormels or stolons; Leaves 3-5 per plant, petioles 22-64cm, blackish green, strongly waxy to the apex, sheath rarely reaching the basal 1/2, sheath margins involute, free portion cylindrical to slightly flattened adaxially; leaf blade pandurate and strap-line, 35-44 x 1.5-8 cm, irregular, sometimes strongly oblique, sometimes erect, blackish green, semi glossy adaxially, whitish and matte abaxially, primary lateral veins 3-5 per side, almost invisible, arising at an angle of 45-70°, apex long acuminate; basal lobes asymmetric, basal rib lacking or purely vestigial, sometimes subhastate, apex rounded. Inflorescences not seen.

[UPB]
Use Animal Food
Aerial parts eaten by animals (Hernández 2011).
Use Food
'Roots' - edible (National Research Council 1975).
Use Food Vegetables
Leaves - Used in salads (Hernández 2011).

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.

Native to:

Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panamá, Peru, Venezuela

Introduced into:

Alabama, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Christmas I., Cook Is., Cuba, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Gabon, Galápagos, Gilbert Is., Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Malaya, Marquesas, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Niue, Norfolk Is., Puerto Rico, Society Is., Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Zaïre, Zimbabwe

English
Blue Guinea, Cocoyam, Cocoyams, Tannia
Spanish
Bore, ñame.

Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
29047.816 No
Kvortzov, B.V.S., Brazil Xanthosoma violaceum 29047.189 No
Giles, C. [PB271], Malaysia Xanthosoma violaceum 29047.348 No
Giles [s.n.] Xanthosoma violaceum 29047.743 No

First published in H.W.Schott & S.L.Endlicher, Melet. Bot.: 19 (1832)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Albano, P.-O. (2003). La Conaissance des Plantes Exotiques: 1-324. Édisud, Aix-en-Provence.
  • Ara, H. (2001). An Annotated Checklist of Aroids of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 8(2): 19-34.
  • Arias Granda, I. (1998). Flora de la República de Cuba, Ser. A., 1(1): 1-46.
  • Arruda Pontes, T., Moreira de Andrade, I. & Alves, M. (2010). Flora da Usina São José, Igarassu, Pernambuco: Araceae. Rodriguésia; Revista do Instituto de Biologia Vegetal, Jardim Botânico e Estaçao Biologica do Itatiaya 61: 689-794.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots'. Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Barger, T.W. & al. (2012). New and noteworthy records for the flora of Alabama. Castanea 77: 257-269.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau). Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe. Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2. Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Haigh, A. & Boyce, P.C. (2012). Flora Zambesiaca 12(1): 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo). Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
  • Moreira de Andrade, I. & al. (2013). The Araceae in Ceará, Brazil: humid forest plants in semi-arid region. Rodriguésia; Revista do Instituto de Biologia Vegetal, Jardim Botânico e Estaçao Biologica do Itatiaya 64: 445-477.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon. Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.

Literature

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co
  • National Research Council (US). Panel on Underexploited Tropical Plants with Promising Economic Value, & United States. Agency for International Development. Office of Science. (1975). Underexploited Tropical Plants with Promising Economic Value: Report of an Ad Hoc Panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation, Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Commission on International Relations (Vol. 16). National Academies.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ara, H. (2001). An Annotated Checklist of Aroids of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 8(2): 19-34.
  • Arias Granda, I. (1998). Flora de la República de Cuba, Ser. A., 1(1): 1-46.
  • Arruda Pontes, T., Moreira de Andrade, I. & Alves, M. (2010). Flora da Usina São José, Igarassu, Pernambuco: Araceae. Rodriguésia; Revista do Instituto de Biologia Vegetal, Jardim Botânico e Estaçao Biologica do Itatiaya 61: 689-794.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots'. Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Barger, T.W. & al. (2012). New and noteworthy records for the flora of Alabama. Castanea 77: 257-269.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau). Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe. Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki. Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2. Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Haigh, A. & Boyce, P.C. (2012). Flora Zambesiaca 12(1): 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hallé, N. (1980). Les Orchidees de Tubuai (archipel des Australes, Sud Polynesie), suivies d'un catalogue des plantes a fleurs et fougeres des iles Australes. Cahiers de l'Indo-Pacifique 2(3): 69-130.
  • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Herrera, K., Lorence, D.H., Flynn, T. & Balick, M.J. (2010). Checklist of the Vascular plants of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia with local names and uses. Allertonia 10: 1-204.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo). Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée. Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Lorence, D.H. & Wagner, W.L. (2019). Flora of the Marquesas Islands 1: 1-411. National Tropical Botanic Garden, Smithsonian, DRPF.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1. Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Pérez-Farrera, M.Á., Martínez-Camilo, R., Martínez-Meléndez, N., Farrera-Sarmiento, O. & Maza-Villalobos, S. (2012). Listado florístico del Cerro Quetzal (Polígono III) de la reserva de la biosfera El Triunfo, Chiapas, México. Botanical Sciences 90: 113-142.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon. Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Wilder, G. P. (1934). The flora of Makatea CNV. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 120: 1-49.
  • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island. Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 487 (1949).
  • Schott, Th. Dur. & Schinz, Consp. Fl. Afr. 5: 478 (1895).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Cámara-Leret, R., & Dennehy, Z. (2019). Information gaps in indigenous and local knowledge for science-policy assessments. Nature Sustainability 2:736-741.
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  • CATE Araceae

    Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Living Collection Database

    Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/