Skip to main content
This species is accepted, and its native range is Eritrea to S. Africa, Yemen.
Catha edulis

[FZ]

Celastraceae, N. K. Robson. Flora Zambesiaca 2:2. 1966

Morphology General Habit
Tree 2–15(25) m. high; stems pale grey-green and flattened when young, becoming vinous red, terete.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with lamina dark green or greyish-green and glossy above, paler beneath, (3·7)5·5–11 × (0·8)1·5–4·5(6) cm., oblong to elliptic or obovate, acute to acuminate or more rarely obtuse at the apex, with margin markedly glandular-crenulate-denticulate, cuneate to angustate at the base, coriaceous or subcoriaceous, with densely reticulate venation more prominent below than above; petiole 3–10 mm. long; stipules c. 2 mm. long, triangular-acicular.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers ?; peduncle 6–12 mm. long; bracts 0·5–1 mm. long, acicular to triangular.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 0·5–0·7 mm. long, broadly ovate to semicircular, rounded, with margin ciliate-fimbriate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 1–1·5 mm. long, elliptic-oblong, with margin ciliolate and paler in colour (at least when dry).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary broadly ovoid; styles short.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule red, 6–10 mm. long, narrowly oblong-3-gonous, pendulous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds rugose-papillose, with a basal wing.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Tree, 2–15 m high; branches rounded
Morphology Leaves
Petiole 3–10 mm long; blade (3.7–)5.5–11 x (0.8–)1.5–4.5(–6) cm, oblong to elliptic or obovate, ± leathery, dark or greyish green and glossy above, paler beneath, acuminate to obtuse at the apex, with markedly glandular-crenulate-denticulate margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes 1–2.3 cm long; peduncle 6–12 mm long; pedicels up to 2 mm long; flowers numerous, 2–3 mm in diam. Sepals 0.5–0.7 mm long, broadly ovate to semicircular, rounded, ciliate-fimbriate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 1–1.5 mm long, elliptic-oblong, with pale ciliate margin
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens shorter than petals
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk 1–1.5 mm in diam. Ovary broadly ovoid; styles slender; stigmas small
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule red, 0.6–1 cm long, narrowly oblong-trigonous, pendulous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds c. 3 mm long, with narrow wing 2–2.5 times as long.
Distribution
Native in eastern tropical Africa from Ethiopia in the north to South Africa in the south, also cultivated in south-western Saudi Arabia and Yemen.
Ecology
Intermediate altitudes.
Vernacular
Khaad, khat, qat (Somali).

[FTEA]

Celastraceae, N.K.B. Robson, N. Hallé, B. Mathew & R. Blakelock†. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1994

Morphology General Habit
Tree 2–15(–25) m. high; branches pale grey-green and flattened when young, becoming vinous red, terete.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-lamina dark green or greyish green and glossy above, paler beneath, oblong to elliptic or obovate, (3.7–)5.5–11 × (0.8–)1.5–4.5(–6) cm., acute to acuminate or more rarely obtuse at the apex, with margin markedly glandular-crenulate-denticulate, cuneate to attenuate at the base, coriaceous or subcoriaceous, with densely reticulate venation more prominent beneath than above; petiole 3–10 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes 1–2.3 cm. long, rather dense, with peduncle 6–12 mm. long; pedicels very short or up to 2 mm. long; flowers many in each cyme, 2–3 mm. in diameter.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals broadly ovate to semicircular, rounded, 0.5–0.7 mm. long, with margin ciliate-fimbriate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals elliptic-oblong, 1–1.5 mm. long, sessile, with margin ciliolate and paler in colour.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens shorter than petals, with filaments 0.7–1 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disc 1–1.5 mm. in diameter.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary broadly ovoid; styles less than 0.5 mm. long, slender; stigmas small.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule red, narrowly oblong-3-gonous, 6–10 mm. long, pendulous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds dark brown, rugose-papillose, with narrow wing 2–2.5 times as long.
Figures
Fig. 5.
Habitat
Evergreen submontane or medium altitude forest, usually near the margins, or in woodland often on rocky hills; 1100–1800(–2400) m.
Distribution
SW. Arabia and throughout eastern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa (Cape Province), west to Angola K1 K3 K4 K5 K6 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1 U2

[FSOM]
Use
The leaves are chewed fresh as a stimulant and are imported in large quantities from Kenya and Ethiopia.

Native to:

Angola, Cape Provinces, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Hawaii, Somalia, Yemen

Catha edulis (Vahl) Endl. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jun 30, 2010 Banze, A. [63], Mozambique K000546052
Jan 1, 1956 Quartin-Dillom [s.n.], Ethiopia K000035785
Codd, L.E. [7702], South Africa K000035788 holotype
Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000035790
Baur, R. [1124], South Africa K000035791
Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000035792
Schimper [1478], Ethiopia K000035786
Chase, M. [34472] K000543555
Harris, T. [32], Mozambique K000545034
Schimper [649], Ethiopia K000035787
Burchell, W.J. [5520], South Africa K000035789

First published in Ench. Bot.: 575 (1841)

Accepted by

  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
  • Exell, A.W., Fernandes, A. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1966). Flora Zambesiaca 2(2): 353-653. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Robson, N.K.B. & al. (1994). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Celastraceae: 1-78.
  • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
  • Exell, A.W., Fernandes, A. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1966). Flora Zambesiaca 2(2): 353-653. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by Sebsebe Demissew [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Battiscombe, A Descriptive Catalogue of Some of the Common Trees and Woody Plants of Kenya Colony p. 73 (1926).
  • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 134 (1961).
  • Endl., Enchirid. Bot.: 575 (1841).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 123 (1949).
  • Loes. & Engl. in A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 231, fig. 114 (1921).
  • Loes. in A. Engler & K. Prantl, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, ed. 2, 20b: 154 (1942).
  • Loes. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile B: 255, 321 (1895)
  • Loes. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 246 (1895).
  • N. Robson & Sousa, Fl. Moçamb. 48: 29 (1969).
  • N. Robson in Fl. Ethiopia 3: 340, fig. 108.4 (1990).
  • N. Robson in Flora Zambesiaca 2: 381 (1966).
  • Oliv. in Flora of Tropical Africa 1: 365 (1868).
  • R. Wilczek in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 9: 126 (1960).
  • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 1: 501 (1948).
  • Verdc. & Trump, Common Poisonous Pl. E. Afr.: 97 (1969).
  • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 78 (1952).

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/