Catha edulis (Vahl) Endl.

First published in Ench. Bot.: 575 (1841)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Eritrea to S. Africa, Yemen. It is a shrub or tree and grows primarily in the seasonally dry tropical biome.

Descriptions

Celastraceae, N. K. Robson. Flora Zambesiaca 2:2. 1966

Morphology General Habit
Tree 2–15(25) m. high; stems pale grey-green and flattened when young, becoming vinous red, terete.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with lamina dark green or greyish-green and glossy above, paler beneath, (3·7)5·5–11 × (0·8)1·5–4·5(6) cm., oblong to elliptic or obovate, acute to acuminate or more rarely obtuse at the apex, with margin markedly glandular-crenulate-denticulate, cuneate to angustate at the base, coriaceous or subcoriaceous, with densely reticulate venation more prominent below than above; petiole 3–10 mm. long; stipules c. 2 mm. long, triangular-acicular.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers ?; peduncle 6–12 mm. long; bracts 0·5–1 mm. long, acicular to triangular.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 0·5–0·7 mm. long, broadly ovate to semicircular, rounded, with margin ciliate-fimbriate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 1–1·5 mm. long, elliptic-oblong, with margin ciliolate and paler in colour (at least when dry).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary broadly ovoid; styles short.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule red, 6–10 mm. long, narrowly oblong-3-gonous, pendulous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds rugose-papillose, with a basal wing.
[FZ]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Tree, 2–15 m high; branches rounded
Morphology Leaves
Petiole 3–10 mm long; blade (3.7–)5.5–11 x (0.8–)1.5–4.5(–6) cm, oblong to elliptic or obovate, ± leathery, dark or greyish green and glossy above, paler beneath, acuminate to obtuse at the apex, with markedly glandular-crenulate-denticulate margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes 1–2.3 cm long; peduncle 6–12 mm long; pedicels up to 2 mm long; flowers numerous, 2–3 mm in diam. Sepals 0.5–0.7 mm long, broadly ovate to semicircular, rounded, ciliate-fimbriate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 1–1.5 mm long, elliptic-oblong, with pale ciliate margin
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens shorter than petals
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk 1–1.5 mm in diam. Ovary broadly ovoid; styles slender; stigmas small
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule red, 0.6–1 cm long, narrowly oblong-trigonous, pendulous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds c. 3 mm long, with narrow wing 2–2.5 times as long.
Distribution
Native in eastern tropical Africa from Ethiopia in the north to South Africa in the south, also cultivated in south-western Saudi Arabia and Yemen.
Ecology
Intermediate altitudes.
Vernacular
Khaad, khat, qat (Somali).
[FSOM]

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/34617/9878762

Conservation
LC - least concern
[IUCN]

Extinction risk predictions for the world's flowering plants to support their conservation (2024). Bachman, S.P., Brown, M.J.M., Leão, T.C.C., Lughadha, E.N., Walker, B.E. https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/nph.19592

Conservation
Predicted extinction risk: not threatened. Confidence: confident
[AERP]

Celastraceae, N.K.B. Robson, N. Hallé, B. Mathew & R. Blakelock†. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1994

Morphology General Habit
Tree 2–15(–25) m. high; branches pale grey-green and flattened when young, becoming vinous red, terete.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-lamina dark green or greyish green and glossy above, paler beneath, oblong to elliptic or obovate, (3.7–)5.5–11 × (0.8–)1.5–4.5(–6) cm., acute to acuminate or more rarely obtuse at the apex, with margin markedly glandular-crenulate-denticulate, cuneate to attenuate at the base, coriaceous or subcoriaceous, with densely reticulate venation more prominent beneath than above; petiole 3–10 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes 1–2.3 cm. long, rather dense, with peduncle 6–12 mm. long; pedicels very short or up to 2 mm. long; flowers many in each cyme, 2–3 mm. in diameter.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals broadly ovate to semicircular, rounded, 0.5–0.7 mm. long, with margin ciliate-fimbriate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals elliptic-oblong, 1–1.5 mm. long, sessile, with margin ciliolate and paler in colour.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens shorter than petals, with filaments 0.7–1 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disc 1–1.5 mm. in diameter.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary broadly ovoid; styles less than 0.5 mm. long, slender; stigmas small.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule red, narrowly oblong-3-gonous, 6–10 mm. long, pendulous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds dark brown, rugose-papillose, with narrow wing 2–2.5 times as long.
Figures
Fig. 5.
Habitat
Evergreen submontane or medium altitude forest, usually near the margins, or in woodland often on rocky hills; 1100–1800(–2400) m.
Distribution
SW. Arabia and throughout eastern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa (Cape Province), west to Angola K1 K3 K4 K5 K6 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1 U2
[FTEA]

Uses

Use
The leaves are chewed fresh as a stimulant and are imported in large quantities from Kenya and Ethiopia.
[FSOM]

Common Names

English
Cafta.

Sources

  • Angiosperm Extinction Risk Predictions v1

    • Angiosperm Threat Predictions
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images