Picramniaceae Fernando & Quinn

First published in Taxon 44(2): 177 (1995):. (1995)
This family is accepted

Descriptions

Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Morphology General Habit
Dioecious trees and shrubs, bark contains bitter-tasting anthraquinones
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, spiral, compound, imparipinnate, exstipulate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence axillary, pendulous, catkin -like racemes or spikes, rarely cauliflorous, &;30 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers actinomorphic, unisexual, dioecious, small, 3-5(-6) merous; sepals free to slightly connate at base, imbricate or valvate, persistent; petals caducous, absent in staminate flowers; stamens equapetalous in number and alternatisepalous, ocasionally on a column; ovary superior, gynophore present; carpels 2-3, fused, locules 1-3, ovules 2 per locule, stigma sessile, 2-3
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a berry in Picramnia Sw., a samara in Alvaradoa Liebm.
Note
Notes on delimitation: Treated as two distict subfamilies the Picraminioideae and the Alvaradooideae due to the differences in fruit and ovary morphology. Long incorporated in the Simaroubaceae but now separated by fruit and molecular differences. Current evidence places the family in a newly recognized order: the Picramniales in the Rosid II/Malvid clade (APGIII). Number of genera: Two: Picramnia 41 spp., Alvaradoa 5 spp.
Distribution
From Mexico south to northern Argentina. Alvaradoa is absent from all of the Amazon Basin except the extreme south and is concentrated in arid regions. Three of five Alvaradoa species are single island endemics found on the Caribbean Islands of Cuba, Hispanola and Jamaica. Picramnia is found primarily in rainforest areas with some species adapting to the drier areas of the Brazilian Planalto. Endemic to the Neotropics.
Diagnostic
Key differences from similar families: Differing from members of the Simaroubaceae s.s in not having uniovulate locules. Fruit a berry in Picramnia, a samara in Alvaradoa.    Carpels only 1 fertile in Alvaradoa, 2 - 3 in Picramnia. Ovules terminal and pendulous in Picramnia, basal and erect in Alvaradoa.
[NTK]

Sources

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Neotropikey

    • Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0