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This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, N. Africa to Eritrea and Mozambique, Europe to China and Arabian Peninsula, Indian Subcontinent.


Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Type: cultivated in Chelsea Physic Garden, origin Barbados, Miller s.n. (BM!, lecto., designated by Edmonds, in J.L.S. 78: 214 (1979))
Morphology General Habit
Annual herb, erect to sprawling, decumbent or prostrate, 0.3–0.5(–1) m high, sometimes woody basally, spreading up to 1(–2) m, with woody tap root or fibrous roots;
Morphology Stem
Stems much-branched, green to purple, with smooth or dentate ridges, densely pilose to glabrescent with simple glandular- or eglandular-headed hairs mixed with glands in the Floral area, moderately to densely pilose to villous with glandular- and eglandular-headed hairs elsewhere
Morphology Leaves
Leaves coarse to membranaceous, light to dark green or purplish, rhomboidal to ovate-lanceolate, occasionally lanceolate, (2–)3–7(–11) × 1.5–4(–7) cm, bases broadly cuneate to truncate and decurrent, occasionally cordate, margins usually sinuate-dentate with obtuse to acute lobes though sometimes entire to sinuate, apices acute; surfaces pubescent as stems; petioles 0.4–3.2(–5) cm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences simple, leafopposed to extra-axillary umbellate to lax cymes often appearing racemose, 3–6(–9)-flowered; peduncles erect, 3–14 mm long in flower, 7–12(–26) mm long in fruit; pedicels erect and 3–9 mm long in flower, reflexed and 4.5–12 mm long in fruit; axes pubescent as stems
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx campanulate, 1.5–2.5(–3.5) mm long, pilose to villous externally; lobes broadly triangular, rarely ovate, 0.4–1.5 × 0.3–1 mm, acute; persistent and enlarging to 1–2.5 × 1.5–3 mm in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white to greenish-white, rarely purple, with translucent, yellow or yellowish-green basal star, sometimes with a purple median vein, stellate, 1–1.6 cm diameter, tube 0.5–1.3 mm long; lobes usually triangular, 3.5–6 × 3.5–5.5 mm, spreading to reflexed after anthesis
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Filaments free for 1.2–2.5 mm, slender, densely pilose/villous internally; anthers yellow to orange, 1.5–2(–2.2) × 0.6–0.8 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary brownish, 0.7–1.5 × 0.5–1.3 mm, glabrous; style 2.4–4.2 mm long, densely pilose for lower three- to one-quarter of length, exserted up to 1 mm but finally included; stigma capitate, 0.3–0.4(–0.5) mm diameter
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Berries smooth, red, orange or yellow, cuticles shiny often becoming dull, typically longitudinally ovoid sometimes globose, 4.5–11 × 6–9 mm, with basal calyx lobes adherent becoming fully reflexed; eventually falling from calyces leaving dried pedicels and calyces
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds (18–)30–56(–70) per berry, yellow to brown, obovoid, discoidal to orbicular, 1.8–2.2 × 1.3–1.8 mm, often visible through translucent mature cuticle, reticulate; sclerotic granules absent
Fig. 17/17–19, p 126
This is a tetraploid (2 n=2 x=48) species which might have originated in southern Europe but which is now widespread throughout central and southern Europe, the Middle East and Asia. It is also common in northern and tropical Africa whence it might have been introduced as it was to North America, New Zealand and Australia (where it is occasionally naturalised) and probably also to the UK and northern Europe. Two subspecies have been recognised in this taxon, which are distinguishable on minor morphological differences and ecogeographical preferences. The subsp. villosum, characterised by a dense villous indumentum of spreading multicellular hairs with both glandular and eglandular heads and terete stems is predominantly found in hot, dry habitats from Europe to the Middle East and Asia but is rare or absent from our area. The second subspecies S. villosum subsp. miniatum (Willd.) Edmonds also occurs throughout Europe, the Middle East and India but is a dominant and frequent taxon throughout eastern and southern Africa. These subspecies, their variability and their complete compatibility, are discussed in Edmonds (1977, 1979). Both are analogously morphologically variable, particularly in their leaf margin shape, berry colours and inflorescence structure. Both subspecies are characterised by yellow, orange or red berries, though they are green and opaque when immature. This contrasts with the subspecies of S. nigrum where though the ripe berries are typically purplish-black and opaque, some variants have yellowish-green mature berries with tranluscent cuticles. This has led to much confusion in the description of infraspecific taxa of both species (see S. humile below, for example).


Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Type: cultivated Berlin Botanic Garden (B-W 4366!, sheet 3!, lecto., designated by Edmonds in J.L.S. 89: 166; 1984)
Morphology Stem
Stems angled with dentate ridges
Morphology General Indumentum
Plants subglabrous to moderately pilose with appressed, eglandular-headed multicellular uniseriate hairs
Forest including riverine Acacia forest, flooded woodland, bushland and bushed grassland, grassy river banks, cultivated land, abandoned fields and settlements, pasture-land, disturbed and stony ground, a weed of cultivation and gardens; 50–2250 m
The species S. hildebrandtii was described from seeds collected in Somalia by Hildebrandt and presumably cultivated in the Berlin Botanic Garden. Bitter (1913) later redescribed the species, citing Hildebrandt 865 (B†) as the holotype, whilst also mentioning some other specimens. There are duplicates of Hildebrandt 865 at the BM and L, while a plant from Berlin, now at HBG and annotated as S. hildebrandtii is probably part of the original live collection from the Berlin Botanical Garden. These specimens are all conspecific with S. villosum subsp. miniatum, with which S. hildebrandtii has therefore been synonymised. A full list of synonyms and citations for the two subspecies of the tetraploid S. villosum are given in Edmonds (1979 & 1984), together with a lengthy discussion; many of these are taxa described from Europe. Of these two subspecies the eglandular-haired subsp. miniatum predominates throughout the whole of Africa, with the glandular-haired subspecies villosum occurring predominantly northwards from Sinai. Typical S. villosum has condensed fewflowered (3–5) umbellate racemose inflorescences in which the fruiting pedicels often exceed the fruiting peduncles in length. Across the Flora area, and throughout much of Europe, lax cymose inflorescences with 3–8 flowers sometimes occur, and indeed two Tanzanian specimens had up to 11-flowered inflorescences on extended rachides. However, the latter on Greenway 6997 (T 2) varied from 0–1.6 cm, with the berries being described as orange-yellow, while the inflorescences on the orange-berried Hepper & Field 5500 (T 7) varied from 4–11-flowered though the fruiting rachides only varied from 0–5 mm.  This plant is widely used as a vegetable in East Africa; the leaves and sometimes the whole plants are used as a spinach in K 1–4, 6 & 7, in T 1, 2 & 7 and in U 2, while the berries are eaten raw as a fruit (with varying reports of induced-illness) in K 2 & 4 and in T 1 & 7. It is said to be less bitter than other section Solanum species. Cattle, game and goats reportedly graze the plants in Kenya, with medicinal uses including the use of berry juice for sore eyes and poultices made from ground soaked leaves for swellings in T 1. Occasional specimens have been encountered which might belong to the glandular-haired subsp. villosum or to one of the other African glandular-haired species of the section Solanum. A specimen collected from K 1 ( Hepper & Jaeger 6694) is densely villous but with eglandular hairs and unusually small flowers for this species (anthers 1–1.3 mm); the berry colour was described as orange. The leaf morphology is typical of another tetraploid species – the blackish-fruited S. memphiticum (see below) raising the possibility that it may be a hybrid between these two tetraploid species. The correct placement of S. humile is difficult; many European authors have treated it as a synonym of, or described it as, an infra-specific taxon of either S. nigrum or of S. villosum. Willdenow described the berries of his species as greenish but smaller than those in S. nigrum; this size reference is suggestive of S. villosum, and the berries may have been immature when he described them since those on the type specimens look blackish and could have been reddish when fresh. Morphologically his specimens suggest conspecificity with S. villosum subsp. miniatum. Dunal (1852) in his later treatment of this species cited a number of specimens (all seen by the author), some of which are synonymous with the latter and some with S. nigrum subsp. nigrum. Similarly, the infraspecific taxa described by various authors and based on Willdenow’s species are synonymous with either S. nigrum or S. villosum. The very brief description of S. luteo -virescens described the berry colour as yellowish-green and ”not yellow”, and the habitat as Karlsruhe in Germany. These are suggestive of it being synonymous with S. nigrum subsp. nigrum. However, Gmelin mentioned the possibility of his taxon being a hybrid between S. nigrum and S. luteum (=S. villosum). Since it was based on S. humile Bernh., the type of which is clearly conspecific with S. villosum subsp. miniatum this taxon has been tentatively synonymised with the latter here. Though it has been suggested that the species described as S. incertum Dunal (Hist. Solanum:155 (1813)) might be the correct name for S. sinaicum, a species occurring from Sinai through Saudi Arabia and Yemen to Ethiopia, it is now thought to be conspecific with S. villosum subsp. miniatum. The Malabaricus plate (t. 73) is somewhat stylised, while a Yemeni specimen ( Dunal 30, MPU!) cited later by Dunal (1852) has much smaller flowers than those typical for S. sinaicum. Similarly an Indian specimen from Calcutta ( Dunal 400) in P, which has S. incertum written on the label in Dunal’s hand and which has long been labelled as a type specimen, also has small flowers. The berries of the Dunalian species were described as pale orange and they look longitudinally ovoid in the Malabaricus plate; this species is therefore considered to be a synonym of S. villosum subsp. miniatum, a taxon common in India. The similarity of S. plebejum A. Rich. to both S. villosum subsp. miniatum and S. sinaicum is mentioned below. The small flowers seen on the type material, however, suggest that this species is synonymous with the former. When Bitter (1913) redescribed this species, he cited Schimper 509 (W); and a duplicate of this specimen at K is identical to var. miniatum. Though the holotypes of Bitter’s two varieties of “ S. plebejum” were destroyed, there is little doubt from the protologues that both var. subtile Bitter and var. brachysepalum Bitter are conspecific with S. plebejum, and that they are also synonymous with S. villosum subsp. miniatum. Lowe did not give any specimen details or numbers for the types of his new Madeiran taxa. There are two sheets labelled Lowe 547 at the BM; one is composed of two specimens both labelled as having been collected from the type locality Rib. de Sta Luzia. Both specimens are mophologically identical to S. villosum subsp. miniatum, and this sheet has been selected as the lectotype of S. patens. The second sheet is composed of three specimens. All have differing collection details which roughly correspond to those given in Lowe’s description of habitats in which this species was found. Lowe described the lobes as having distinct purple veins, a feature which can occur in several Section Solanum species, but which particularly characterises two other tetraploid African species – the northern S. sinaicum Dunal and the southern S. retroflexum Dunal. The latter always has dull purple berries whereas S. sinaicum is characterised by yellowish berries which turn black on drying, and are not translucent; Lowe described the berries of his new species as being dull reddish and showing the seeds inside which is characteristic of S. villosum. He also described the habit of S. patens as suffrutescent with stiffly stout almost woody branches – features which could also be applicable to S. sinacium – but the berry colour of the latter does not match Lowe’s description. The overall morphology of all three specimens is again indicative of synonymy with S. villosum subsp. miniatum, and the morphological variation exhibited by the different sheets is that expected in this taxon. Lowe’s type specimens of his two varieties of S. villosum are mounted on the same sheet. The lower of these is labelled var. laevigata; it has S. miniatum and Lisbon on the label, and is conspecific with S. villosum subsp. miniatum. Indeed in his protologue, Lowe gave S. miniatum as a synonym of his new variety. The upper specimen, Lowe 722, is labelled var. velutina and is conspecific with the var. villosum.
Range: Also found in Nigeria, Angola and Madeira Range: Probably introduced from Eurasia, but now occurring from Israel and Egypt, through Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea and Burundi to tropical East Africa Flora districts: U1 U3 U4 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T4 T7


M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008]

Morphology General Habit
Plant with eglandular ± appressed hairs.
N1, 2; widespread in tropical and southern Africa, Europe and Middle East, introduced to North America and possibly New Zealand.
Altitude range 1300–2000 m.


M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008]

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herb or low shrub, 30–60(–120) cm high, with numerous stems arising from woody rhizomatous base, pubescent with eglandular, appressed hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves moderately pilose with eglandular hairs, denser below; petiole 0.6–1.6(–2.5) cm long, winged for at least 2/3 of its length; blade rhomboidal, ovate-lanceolate or ovate, 2–5 x 1–3 cm, base broadly cuneate to truncate, margins usually sinuate-dentate with up to 6 lobes on either side, apex acute or obtuse
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences simple, umbel- or raceme-like, laxly 2–5(–8)-flowered; peduncle erect, 8–12 mm in flower, 10–20(–30) mm in fruit; pedicels 6–12 mm long, deflexed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 2–4 mm long; lobes obovate to spathulate, 1–1.6 mm long, enlarging to 2–2.5 mm in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white with dark purple midrib to petals and purplish basal star; petals strongly recurved
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers orange-yellow, 2.5–3.25 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style (4–)5–8 mm long, geniculate and exserted for 2–4 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit yellow or orange, turning black on drying, 5–7 mm in diam. Seeds 1.8–2.2 mm long.
N2; Jordan, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Ethiopia
Altitude range 1500–2200 m.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Belarus, Bulgaria, Burundi, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Gulf States, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Malawi, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Qinghai, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Sahara, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Angola, Baltic States, Belgium, California, Cape Provinces, Denmark, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Ireland, Korea, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Netherlands, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Northern Provinces, Pennsylvania, Queensland, Socotra, South Australia, St.Helena, Taiwan, Washington, Western Australia

Solanum villosum Mill. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2017 Collenette, I.S. [2696], Saudi Arabia K001151927
Jan 1, 2017 Duvdevani, S. [284], Israel K001151898
Jan 1, 2017 Boulos, L. [19200], Egypt K001151936
Jan 1, 2017 Meyers, F.S. [3151], Jordan K001151892
Jan 1, 2017 Bornmüller, J.F.N. [1798] K001151863
Jan 1, 2011 Gremmen, N.J.M. [T070024], St. Helena K000299319
Jun 1, 2003 Friis, I. [8350], Ethiopia K000658426
Cope, T.A. [RBG 577], Great Britain K000914630
Syngrassides, A. [244], Cyprus K001151867
Lascelles, A.G. [s.n.], Cyprus K001151873
Meyers, F.S. [9151] K001151896
Simpson, N.D. [112], Egypt K001151916
Chevallier, L. [s.n.], Algeria K001152254
Herb. Cosson, E.S.-.C. [s.n.], Morocco K001152255
Trethewy, A.W. [83], Morocco K001152260
Heath, I.B. [394], Morocco K001152262
Herb. Moniz [s.n.], Portugal K001152316
Nee, M. [18239], USA K001170975
Polhill, R. [1686], Tanzania K001158283
Hepper, F.N. [4837], Kenya K001158291
Robertson, S.A. [643], Tanzania K001158292
Lind, E. [82], Uganda K001158306
Hale, M. [44], Kenya K001158310
Hepper, F.N. [6600], Kenya K001158318
s.coll [129], Egypt K001151894
Gilliat-Smith, B. [2123/a], Iran K001151901
Maitland, T.D. [414], Lebanon K001151886
Tanner, R.E.S. [924], Tanzania K001158289
Maitland, T.D. [s.n.], Jordan K001151891
Hooper, S.S. [2014], Tanzania K001158288
Collenette, S. [72-146], Saudi Arabia K001151925
Holus, J. [s.n.], Cyprus K001151868
Watson, H.C. [146], Portugal K001152310
Boulos, L. [17234], Yemen K001151931
Heath, I.B. [340A], Morocco K001152261
Collenette, I.S. [3332], Saudi Arabia K001151920
Muasya, J. [GBK-045058], Kenya K001158317
Hukui, K. [26], Tanzania K001158280
Cosson [s.n.], Morocco K001152259
Battiscombe, E. [453] K001158322
Austin, M. [M73], Spain K001152314
Trott, A.C. [90], Saudi Arabia K001151924
Greenway, P.J. [10635], Tanzania K001158279
Greenway [6882], Tanzania K001158301
Chevallier, L. [s.n.], Algeria K001152252
Andrews, R.J. [R141], Spain K001152315
El Assi, A. [523], Tunisia K001152248
Batty, M. [274], Tanzania K001158299
Meyerhoff, E. [22], Kenya K001158309
Meikle [5048], Cyprus K001151865
Atherton, G.E. [301] K001151880
Polhill, E. [139], Kenya K001158328
Lindberg, H. [s.n.], Cyprus K001151878
Mashaly, I. [20189], Egypt K001151912
Meinertzhagen [152], Algeria K001152251
Gabrielith, R. [24] K001151883
s.coll [s.n.] K001151910
Maitland, T.D. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001151887
Atherton, G.E. [387], Greece K001151876
Kerfoot, O. [3547], Kenya K001158329
Polhill, R. [1686], Tanzania K001158282
Atherton, G.E. [669], Cyprus K001151871
Hart, H.C. [s.n.] K001151884
Herb. Lowe, R.T. [16] K001152263
Oswald, P.H. [22], Cyprus K001151874
Roseikle [5026], Cyprus K001151872
Hepper, F.N. [5500], Kenya K001158277
Hornby, H.H. [350], Tanzania K001158293
Hepper, F.N. [7052], Kenya K001158323
Maitland, T.D. [s.n.], Lebanon K001151888
Tanner, R. [4932], Tanzania K001158284
Collenette, I.S. [1269], Saudi Arabia K001151926
Hepper, F.N. [5500], Tanzania K001158296
Polhill, R.M. [828], Kenya K001158326
Codd, L.E.W. [7521], Angola K001029776
Meikle, R.D. [2735], Cyprus K001151875
Bally, P.R.O. [1022], Kenya K001158319
Dalton, M.G. [8], Kenya K001158314
Gilbert, M.G. [6305], Kenya K001158313
Greenway [6997], Tanzania K001158295
Wilson [s.n.], Uganda K001158307
Dinsmore, J.E. [10810], Jordan K001151890
Trethewy, A.W. [183], Morocco K001152264
Keith [1032], Libya K001152245
Syngrassides, A. [244], Cyprus K001151869
Glover [2252], Kenya K001158311
Simpson, N.D. [3021], Egypt K001151909
Ibrahim [s.n.], Morocco K001152257
Bax, R.D. [253], Tanzania K001158303
Haussknecht, C. [s.n.] K001151903
s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001170971
Gibbons, R.B. [294], Afghanistan K001151907
Faden, R.B. [74/676], Kenya K001158315
Miller, A.G. [374], Yemen K001151929
Simpson, N.D. [1390], Egypt K001151913
Tanner, R.E.S. [4532], United Kingdom K001158286
Gabrielith, R. [s.n.] K001151882
Tanner, R. [829], Tanzania K001158287
s.coll [s.n.] K001029774
Carter, H. [717], Afghanistan K001151906
Thomson, T. [s.n.], Tanzania K001158300
Hooker [s.n.], Morocco K001152258
Munby [s.n.], Algeria K001152249
Maconochie, J.R. [2990], Oman K001151918
Richards, M. [18304], Tanzania K001158302
NMK [18], Kenya K001158316
Miller, A.G. [147], Yemen K001151930
Cooke [46], Kenya K001158321
Al-Kaise, K.A. [47215] K001151900
Clasey, E. [24], Cyprus K001151879
Abu-Laila, K. [70-2], Jordan K001151893
Townsend, C.C. [85/4], Israel K001151899
Ecoyomirles, S. [980], Cyprus K001151864
Whyte, A. [s.n.], Uganda K001158305
Tanner [4532], United Kingdom K001158285
Haarer, A.E. [566], Tanzania K001158297
Polhill, R. [974], Kenya K001158312
Langerton [s.n.], Cyprus K001151877
Simpson, N.D. [5456], Egypt K001151915
White, C.T. [13009], Australia K001153973
Cope, T.A. [RBG 18], Great Britain K000914299
Edmonds, M.E. [s.n.] K001151336
s.coll [s.n.], Algeria K001152253
Harwood, A. [3], Kenya K001158278
Hammond, M.M. [172], Tanzania K001158290
Maitland, T.D. [522], Lebanon K001151889
Herb. Gay, J.É. [s.n.] K001152267
Gillespie, L. [25], Yemen K001151928
Meyers, F.S. [4810] K001151897
Cope, T.A. [RBG 515], Great Britain K000914300
Atherton, G.E. [861], Cyprus K001151881
Richards, H.M. [12233], Tanzania K001158294
Wilson, J. [633], Uganda K001158308
Syngrassides, A. [244], Cyprus K001151866
Lowper, S.G. [s.n.], Cyprus K001151870
Boulos, L. [14102], Saudi Arabia K001151922
Austin, M. [M133], Spain K001152313
Jarrel, T. [454], Uganda K001158304
Polhill, P. [828], Kenya K001158327
Stapf, O. [2731] K001151902
Trethewy, A.W. [262], Morocco K001152265
Simpson, N.D. [4795], Egypt K001151911
Cosson, M.M.E. [s.n.], Tunisia K001152247
Samuelsson, G. [1086], Syria K001151885
Collenette, I.S. [3133], Saudi Arabia K001151921
Schweinfurth, G.A. [1410], Egypt K001151908
Trethewy, A.W. [193], Morocco K001152266
Carew Hunt, T. [s.n.], Portugal K001152312
Pitard, C.-.J.M. [1755], Morocco K001152256
s.coll [134], Kenya K001158325
Spellenberg, R.W. [7328], Yemen K001151932
Milne-Redhead, E. [10186], Tanzania K001158281
Archibald, J.C. [2661], Iran K001151905
Grimshaw, J.M. [93728], Tanzania K001158298
Hepper, F.N. [6694], Kenya K000658425
s.coll [135], Kenya K001158324
Verdcourt, B. [564], Kenya K001158320
Watson, H.C. [146], Portugal K001152311
Simpson, N.D. [4494], Egypt K001151914
Munton, P.N. [17], Oman K001151919
Cosson, E.S.-.C. [s.n.], Algeria K001152250
Warren, R.C. [18], Iran K001151904
Sandwith, N.Y. [2395], Libya K001152244
Keith [1036], Libya K001152246
Collenette, I.S. [1542], Saudi Arabia K001151923
Jan 1, 2017 Rechinger, K.H. [16293], Afghanistan Solanum olgae K001152174
Jan 1, 2017 Rechinger, K.H. [16549], Afghanistan Solanum olgae K001152175
Walton, H.J. [s.n.] Solanum olgae K001153181
Agha, A.S. [5370], Iraq Solanum nigrum var. villosum K001151774
Alizzis [19706], Iraq Solanum nigrum var. villosum K001151777
Alizzi, H. [19683], Iraq Solanum nigrum var. villosum K001151776
Rawi [29033], Iraq Solanum nigrum var. villosum K001151772
Rawi [29051], Iraq Solanum nigrum var. villosum K001151773
Botany staff [43788], Iraq Solanum nigrum var. villosum K001151769
s.coll [1608], Iraq Solanum nigrum var. villosum K001151778
Hamid, H. [42695], Iraq Solanum nigrum var. villosum K001151770
Wheeler Haines, R. [W1359], Iraq Solanum nigrum var. villosum K001151779
Rawi, A. [26567], Iraq Solanum nigrum var. villosum K001151771
Rawi [19809], Iraq Solanum nigrum var. villosum K001151775
Jan 1, 2017 Khatib, A. [19457], Syria Solanum luteum K001152167
Jan 1, 2017 s.coll [210] Solanum luteum K001152166
Groves, H. [s.n.], United Kingdom Solanum luteum K001151363
Cambridge University Expedition [H91], Greece Solanum luteum K001151388
Rechinger [s.n.], Austria Solanum luteum K001151416
s.coll [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151422
Milne-Redhead, G. [6182], United Kingdom Solanum luteum K001151443
Herb Mill, J.S. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151446
Pons, A. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151459
Hepper, F.N. [8696], Greece Solanum luteum K001151386
Tuczkiewicz, D. [3659] Solanum luteum K001151455
Favrat, L. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151406
s.coll [s.n.], Switzerland Solanum luteum K001151411
Ecole, H.P. [s.n.], France Solanum luteum K001151472
s.coll [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151453
s.coll [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151456
Milne-Redhead, G. [6382], United Kingdom Solanum luteum K001151442
Butler, T. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151466
s.coll [22] Solanum luteum K001151399
Rechinger, K.H. [30866], Pakistan Solanum luteum K001153169
Herb Forbes Young [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151420
Heldreich, T.H.H. von [3206], Greece Solanum luteum K001151389
s.coll [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151450
Hort Inst Innes, J. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151424
Davis [1514], Greece Solanum luteum K001151392
Webb, P.B. [? [722] Solanum luteum K001151440
Wolley-Dod, A.H. [1606] Solanum luteum K000650948
Heldreich, T.H.H. von [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151390
s.coll [s.n.], Italy Solanum luteum K001151415
s.coll [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151461
Milne-Redhead, G. [6382], United Kingdom Solanum luteum K001151441
Beguin [s.n.], France Solanum luteum K001151452
Ahlberg, N.F. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151398
Favrat, L. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151409
Pannister, C.W. [W983], United Kingdom Solanum luteum K001151445
s.coll [s.n.], Belgium Solanum luteum K001151465
Bonnet, E. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151458
Tuezkiewicz, D. [3439] Solanum luteum K001151463
Herb Forbes Young [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151418
Blanche, H. [3659] Solanum luteum K001151454
s.coll [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151451
Pryce Jones, W.H. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151448
s.coll [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151423
Gill, A.J. [s.n.], Greece Solanum luteum K001151387
Lousley, J.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom Solanum luteum K001151444
Baker, J.G. [874], United Kingdom Solanum luteum K001151439
Ahlberg, N.F. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151397
s.coll [50505], Iraq Solanum luteum K001152165
Filipi, L. [1167], Slovenia Solanum luteum K001151413
Thomas [s.n.], Italy Solanum luteum K001151410
Herb Mill, J.S. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151447
Herb Cuatrecasas, J. [s.n.], Spain Solanum luteum K001151337
Herb Forbes Young [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151419
Gandoger, M. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151393
Vicherek, J. [1554] Solanum luteum K001151484
Herb Gay, J. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151421
Prior, A. [s.n.], Italy Solanum luteum K001151457
Herb Mill, J.S. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151464
Braun, A.K.H. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151412
Hb. Turner, D. [s.n.], France Solanum luteum K001151449
s.coll [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151462
Thedenius, C.G.H. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151396
Favrat, L. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151407
s.coll [42], France Solanum luteum K001151460
Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. Jr. [6552], Netherlands Solanum luteum K001151405
Wiesbaur, J.B. [746/4], Austria Solanum luteum K001151414
Thedenius, C.G.H. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151395
Pichler, T. [s.n.], Greece Solanum humile K001151534
Nelmes, E. [169], United Kingdom Solanum ochroleucum K001151499
Jungner, J.R. [s.n.], Sweden Solanum ochroleucum K001151403
Fiori, A. [2517], Italy Solanum ochroleucum K001151469
Braun, A. [s.n.] Solanum ochroleucum K001151301
Bastard, T. [s.n.] Solanum ochroleucum K001151189
Gabriel, P. [s.n.] Solanum ochroleucum K001151467
Nelmes, E. [169], United Kingdom Solanum ochroleucum K001151502
Nelmes, E. [169], United Kingdom Solanum ochroleucum K001151503
Ellman, E. [169], Spain Solanum ochroleucum K001151498
Bastard, T. [s.n.] Solanum ochroleucum K001151190
Adamovic, L. [s.n.], Macedonia Solanum ochroleucum K001151385
Ozanon, H.C. [1483], France Solanum ochroleucum K001151537
Béguinot, A. [2518], Italy Solanum ochroleucum K001151468
Nelmes, E. [169], United Kingdom Solanum ochroleucum K001151501
Nelmes, E. [169], United Kingdom Solanum ochroleucum K001151500
Favrat, L. [s.n.] Solanum ochroleucum K001151408
s.coll [406] Solanum miniatum K001151478
Martindale, G.E. [67], Spain Solanum miniatum K001151520
Martindale, G.E. [67], Spain Solanum miniatum K001151521
Jan 1, 2017 Singer, A. [Soni0201140708], Israel Solanum villosum K001151809
Jan 1, 2017 Maitland, T.D. [s.n.], Israel Solanum villosum K001151810
Lange, J.M.C. [s.n.] Solanum villosum K001151404
Alston, A.H.G. [1289], Albania Solanum suffruticosum K001151371
Jan 1, 2017 Letchworth [s.n.], Israel Solanum villosum subsp. miniatum K001151937
Jun 1, 2011 Luke, Q. [14210], Kenya Solanum villosum subsp. miniatum K000823776
Jan 1, 2005 Welwitsch [6035], Angola Solanum villosum subsp. miniatum K000196167
Feb 1, 2004 Olet, E.A. [040], Uganda Solanum villosum subsp. miniatum K000823773
O'Neill, E. [s.n.], Australia Solanum villosum subsp. miniatum K001153972
Hepper, F.N. [5628], Yemen Solanum villosum subsp. miniatum K001151938
Jan 1, 2017 Hepper, F.N. [5614], Yemen Solanum sinaicum K001151933
Jan 1, 2017 Gillett, J.B. [15973], Jordan Solanum sinaicum K001151960
Jan 1, 2017 Karschon, R. [s.n.] Solanum sinaicum K001151961
Jan 1, 2017 Dinsmore, J.E. [11151], Jordan Solanum sinaicum K001151941
Jan 1, 2017 Hepper, F.N. [3109], Jordan Solanum sinaicum K001151940
Jan 1, 2017 s.coll [8987], Jordan Solanum sinaicum K001151939
Jan 1, 2017 Boulos, L. [19384], Egypt Solanum sinaicum K001151968
Jan 1, 2011 Karschon, R. [s.n.], Israel Solanum sinaicum K001151962
Jun 27, 1905 Friis, I. [6640], Ethiopia Solanum sinaicum K000658429
Jun 27, 1905 Glover, P.E. [615], Somalia Solanum sinaicum K000658430
Collenette, I.S. [2675], Saudi Arabia Solanum sinaicum K001151963
Speke [s.n.], Egypt Solanum sinaicum K001151969
Wood, J.R.I. [2193], Yemen Solanum sinaicum K001151959
Hepper, F.N. [8742], Egypt Solanum sinaicum K001151966
Boulos, L. [7563], Jordan Solanum sinaicum K001151970
s.coll [32], Saudi Arabia Solanum sinaicum K001151958
Collenette, I.S. [3313], Saudi Arabia Solanum sinaicum K001151964
Boissier, E. [s.n.], Egypt Solanum sinaicum K000759386 isotype
Collenette, I.S. [4349], Saudi Arabia Solanum sinaicum K001151965

First published in Gard. Dict. ed. 8: n.° 2 (1768)

Accepted by

  • (2020). Pullaiah, T. & Karuppusamy, S. Flora of the Eastern Ghats 7: 1-474.
  • Bikandu, B., Lukoki, F. & Habari, J.P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Särkinen, T. & al. (2018). A revision of the Old World black nightshades (Morelloid clade of Solanum L., Solanaceae) PhytoKeys 106: 1-223.

Not accepted by

  • Nasir, E. (1975). Flora of West Pakistan 83: 1-31. [Cited as Solanum nigrum var. villosum.]


Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2019). epublication.
  • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Särkinen, T. & al. (2018). A revision of the Old World black nightshades (Morelloid clade of Solanum L., Solanaceae) PhytoKeys 106: 1-223.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 100 (1838–43), as S. villosum Lam.;
  • Afr. Indig. Veget.: 188 (2000)
  • Austrobaileya 1(1): 18–19 (1977);
  • Biol. & Tax. Solanaceae: 529–548 (1979));
  • Bothalia 25(1): 48 (1995);
  • Contrib. Queensland Herb. 16: 54–58 (1974)
  • Edmonds & Chweya, Black Nightshades: 42 (1997);
  • F.P.N.A.: 211 (1947), as S. villosum Lam;
  • Fl. Egypt 3: 39 (2002);
  • Fl. Egypt. 159, Solanaceae: 14 (1998);
  • Fl. Eth. 5: 118 (2006)
  • Fl. Somalia 3: 207 (2006);
  • G. Don, Gen. Hist. Dichlam. Pl. 4: 413 (1837), as S. villosum Lam
  • Gard. Dict. ed. 8: Solanum No. 2 (1768)
  • J.L.S. 75: 141–178 (1977)
  • J.L.S. 78: 214 (1979)
  • J.L.S. 89: 165 (1984);
  • Jaeger, Syst. studies Solanum in Africa: 296 (1985, ined.)
  • Journ. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 4: 55–56 (1981);
  • Lam.; E. & P. Pf.: 22 (1895), as S. villosum Lam;
  • Lowe, Man. Fl. Madeira 2: 76 (1872), as S. villosum
  • Légum. Afr. Indig.: 382 (2004);
  • Manoko, Syst. Study African Solanum sect. Solanum: chapters 1, 3, 6–8 (2007).
  • Mansfeld, Encycl. Ag. & Hort. Crops 4: 1809 (2001);
  • Pak. Journ. Bot. 23(2): 271 (1991) pro parte;
  • Phytoparasitica, 13(1): 63 (1985);
  • Post, Fl. Syria, Palestine & Sinai: 257 (1930), as S. villosum Lam.;
  • Purdie et al., Fl. Austral. 29: 100 (1982);
  • Uganda: papers i-vi (2004);

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
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© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

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