Family:
Bixaceae Kunth
Genus:
Bixa L.

Bixa orellana L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to S. Tropical America. It is has environmental uses and social uses, as animal food, a poison and a medicine and for fuel and food.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Amazonia, Andean, Guiana Shield, Caribbean, Orinoquia, Pacific. Elevation range: 0–2500 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlántico, Bolívar, Boyacá, Caldas, Caquetá, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Chocó, Córdoba, Cundinamarca, Guaviare, Huila, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindío, Risaralda, San Andrés y Providencia, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupés, Vichada.
Habit
Shrub, Small tree, Tree.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Abujumujariyocù (Cubeo), Achiote, Achoote, Achote, Achote de monte, Anatta, Azafrán de la tierra, Bija, Bijá, Bija anatto, Eroyá, Onoto, Uñañé

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 0 - 2500 m.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.
Distribution
Native and cultivated in Colombia.
Morphology General Habit
Shrub.
Vernacular
Urucú, eroyá, uñañé, unucú, achoote, woukou.

[FWTA]

Bixaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Morphology General Habit
An introduced shrub; sometimes subspontaneous.

[FZ]

Bixaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or small tree up to 8 m. tall; branches and rhachis of the inflorescence covered with rusty scales.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-lamina 7.5–24 x 4–16 cm., ovate, apex long-acuminate, base cordate or truncate, densely scaly beneath at first, later glabrescent, 5-nerved from the base, petiole up to 12 cm. long, thickened at the base and apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in terminal 8–50-flowered panicles or corymbs; bracts 5–10 mm. long, caducous; pedicels 8–10 mm. long, red-scaly, apex thickened and with 5–6 sessile glands.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 10–12 mm. long, purplish, scaly, obovate, concave, blunt.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 5–7, unequal, obovate, obtuse or refuse, pinkish-white.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers violet.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary globose, with dense, red-blotched bristles; style 1.2–1.5 cm. long; stigma-lobes very short.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule narrowly ovoid, acute, densely covered with stiff, slender bristles, opening to the base by two valves.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds c. 4 mm. long, numerous, obovoid-angular; testa covered with minute, red, sessile glands.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa y cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2500 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Arbusto, arbolito, árbol
Conservation
No Evaluada

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
abujo, achiote, achiote amarillo, achiote de bija, achiote de cholo, achiote de monte, achiote pepa roja, achiote rojo, achiote verde, achiotillo, achote, achote amarillo, achote casero, achote colorado, achote de bija, achote de monte, achote montañero, achote silvestre, anoto, bija, bijo, onoto, palo de bija

[FTEA]

Bixaceae, D. M. Bridson. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1975

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or small tree l–9(–15) m. tall; young branches densely covered with rust-coloured peltate scales, becoming glabrescent with age.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petiolate; blades ovate, 5–25 cm. long, 3.3–16.5 cm. wide, apex long acuminate, base cordate or less often truncate (very rarely obtuse), very young leaves with rust-coloured sessile scales beneath, soon becoming glabrescent or glabrous, with 5–6 pairs of lateral nerves, the second pair always arising from the base together with the first pair, prominent beneath; petiole slender, 1.2–13 cm. long, distinctly thickened at the base and apex.
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules ± lanceolate, 0.4–1.5 cm. long, leaving a very shallow scale-like scar with 2 sessile glands.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicles or corymbs 8–50-flowered; pedicels 4–12 mm. long, thickened towards apex, densely covered with rusty-red peltate scales; bracts lanceolate to narrowly obovate, 4–7(–10) mm. long, soon caducous, leaving a scale-like scar.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Receptacle
Receptacles with (4–)5(–6) pale shining glands, variable in size.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals purplish, ovate, concave, 8–12 mm. long, obtuse or rounded, with rust-coloured sessile scales outside.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white with light red veins and oblong dots or mauve or bright pink, unequal, obovate, 1.5–3 cm. long, 0.8–2 cm. wide, obtuse to rounded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Filaments 8–14 mm. long; anthers violet or red to purple, 1–1.2 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary ovoid or subglobose, 2.25–3 mm. wide, covered with dense red blotched bristles; style 12–15 mm. long, thickened towards the apex, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule variable in shape and colour, rounded with an abrupt short acuminate apex or elongate-ovate with a long acuminate apex, (l.4–)2–4.5 cm. long, (l.7–)2–4 cm. wide, sometimes with a short stipe up to 4 mm. long, densely covered with red to brown stiff bristles, variable in length (there is also a variety with smooth capsules which does not occur in Africa); endocarp detaching, membranous and shiny.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds numerous, red-brown, obovoid-angular, 4–5 mm. long; testa studded with minute red glands; funicles 2–3 mm. long, with a disc-shaped apex.
Habitat
Cultivated, sometimes naturalized; 30–1750 m.
Distribution
K4 K7 T3 T4 T6 U Z commonly cultivated throughout the tropics

[UPFC]
Vernacular
Bijá, Onoto

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
Use Social
Social uses.

[UPB]
Use Food Food Additives
Used as a condiment (Pérez Arbeláez 1996).
Use Materials Tannins/Dyestuffs
Used as a colorant in cosmetics (Rugeles Chacón et al. 2012, Tapasco et al. 2015). Seeds - Orange dye obtained from the seeds id used to dye basketry (Linares 1994).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

Native to:

Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela

Introduced into:

Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina, Cambodia, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Comoros, Congo, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Galápagos, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Leeward Is., Liberia, Marianas, Mauritius, Mozambique, New Caledonia, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Samoa, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Vanuatu, Venezuelan Antilles, Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is., Zaïre, Zimbabwe

English
Anatto
Spanish
Achiote, achiote rojo, achiote amarillo, onoto, achote de monte, unucú, azafrán de la tierra, achote, bija, anatto, anatta.

Bixa orellana L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 2014 Wardi [BOHK 504], Indonesia K000734742 No
Nov 1, 2010 Bau [LAE 83033] K000577025 No
Nov 1, 2010 Barbon et al. [22014], Philippines K000577024 No
Dec 8, 2006 Clunies-Ross, C. [CCR141], Vanuatu K000036917 No
Oct 24, 1996 Duarte, A.P. [8818], Brazil K000973077 Yes
Jan 1, 1994 Dubs, B. [1623], Brazil K000973064 Yes
Feb 1, 1990 Agra, M.F. [1182], Brazil K000973066 Yes
Jan 1, 1987 Etuge, M. [221], Cameroon K000105912 No
Jan 1, 1987 Balée, W.L. [801], Brazil K000973065 Yes
Jan 1, 1987 Etuge, M. [234], Cameroon K000105913 No
Jan 1, 1986 Plowman, T. [8278], Brazil K000973063 Yes
Jan 1, 1982 Lasseigne, A.A. [P22589], Brazil K000973069 Yes
Jan 1, 1966 Prance, G.T. [1630], Brazil K000973070 Yes
Tinsley [4895], Ghana 16581.000 No
Mambo, P. [9], Cameroon K000105916 No
Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil K000973073 Yes
Burchell [5626], Brazil K000973074 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1067], Malaysia K001110907 Yes
Gardner [3569], Brazil K000973078 Yes
Lindman, C.A.M. [3159], Brazil K000973079 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1067] K001110910 Yes
Mambo, P. [9], Cameroon K000105915 No
Gardner [3569], Brazil K000973080 Yes
Carvalho, A.M. [263], Brazil K000973067 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1067], India K001110906 Yes
Burchell [7274], Brazil K000973075 Yes
Telfair, C. [Cat. no. 1067], Mauritius K001110908 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1067], India K001110909 Yes
Silva, E.S. [R.5811], Brazil K000973068 Yes
Gust, O.A. [1500], Brazil K000973071 Yes
Burchell [1079], Brazil K000973076 Yes
Blanchet [3111], Brazil K000973072 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 512 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lejoly, J., Ndjele, L. & Geerinck, D. (2008). Flore de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 24: 1-37.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
  • Linares, J.L. (2003 publ. 2005). Lista comentado de los árboles nativos y cultivados en la República de El Salvador Ceiba; a Scientific and Technical Journal Published by Zamorano 44: 105-268.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Oliveira-Filho, A.T. (2006). Catálogo das Árvores nativas de Minas Gerais: 1-423. Editora UFLA, Lavas, Brasil.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 13: 1-548. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Chev. Bot. 36.
  • —F.T.A. 1: 114

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Bernal, R., Galeano, G., Rodríguez, A., Sarmiento, H. & Gutiérrez, M. (2017). Nombres comunes de las plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
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Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Chou, S., Chhnang, P. & Kim, Y. (2016). A Checklist for the Seed Plants of Cambodia: 1-272. National Institute of Biological Resources, Korea.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
  • Guillaumin, A. (1948). Compendium de la Flore Phanérogamique des Nouvelles Hébrides Annales de l'Institut Botanico-Geologique Colonial de Marseille, VI, 5-6: 1-56.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lejoly, J., Ndjele, L. & Geerinck, D. (2008). Flore de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 24: 1-37.
  • Linares, J.L. (2003 publ. 2005). Lista comentado de los árboles nativos y cultivados en la República de El Salvador Ceiba; a Scientific and Technical Journal Published by Zamorano 44: 105-268.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Oliveira-Filho, A.T. (2006). Catálogo das Árvores nativas de Minas Gerais: 1-423. Editora UFLA, Lavas, Brasil.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 13: 1-548. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

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  • Backer & Heemstede in Fl. Males., ser. 1, 4: 239, figs. 1, 2 (1951).
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  • Dammer in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile B: 404 (1895).
  • Excell & Mendonça in Consp. Fl. Angol. 1: 77 (1937).
  • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 263 (1962).
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  • Pilger in A. Engler & K. Prantl, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, ed. 2, 21: 314, fig. 139 (1925).
  • Sim., For. Fl. Port. E. Afr.: 11, t. 2/A (1909).
  • Villiers in Fl. Gabon 22: 59, t. 15 (1973).
  • Volkens in Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahelm App. 22, 3: 68, 110–111, fig. 57 (1910).
  • Wild in Flora Zambesiaca 1: 261 (1960).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

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