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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa to Botswana, Madagascar.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Loosely tufted perennial, the basal sheaths soon falling away; culms robust, 1–3 m. high, erect, sometimes supported by stilt roots at the base.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades linear to narrowly lanceolate, 15–60 cm. long, 8–30 mm. wide, smooth, mostly dark green, firm, the base as wide as the sheath or more often cordate to subamplexicaul; ligule scarious, 0.3–1(–2) mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
False panicle linear 20–70 cm. long; racemes 10–15 mm. long, the lowermost internode and pedicel connate and swollen.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Sessile spikelet narrowly elliptic, 3.5–5 mm. long; lower glume firmly membranous, narrowly winged, slightly concave with a V-shaped median groove towards the base, without oil streaks and intercarinal nerves or these obscure and confined to the tip; upper lemma bifid to the middle, the awn 10–17 mm. long (very rarely absent) with a distinct column. Pedicelled spikelet narrowly lanceolate, 3.5–5 mm. long, with clear closely spaced nerves.
Sessile
Sessile spikelet narrowly elliptic, 3.5–5 mm. long; lower glume firmly membranous, narrowly winged, slightly concave with a V-shaped median groove towards the base, without oil streaks and intercarinal nerves or these obscure and confined to the tip; upper lemma bifid to the middle, the awn 10–17 mm. long (very rarely absent) with a distinct column.
Pedicelled
Pedicelled spikelet narrowly lanceolate, 3.5–5 mm. long, with clear closely spaced nerves.
Habitat
Deciduous bushland and wooded grassland, often on wet soils; 0–2300 m.
Distribution
K2 K3 T1 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1 U3 U4 Z tropical Africa

[FWTA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

Morphology General Habit
Tall perennial up to 2·5 m. high
Morphology Leaves
Glaucous leaves
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Dense narrow panicles.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial; caespitose; clumped loosely. Butt sheaths withering. Basal innovations extravaginal. Culms erect; 100-300 cm long; without nodal roots, or with prop roots. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 0.3-2 mm long; scarious. Leaf-blade base broadly rounded, or cordate. Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate; 15-60 cm long; 8-30 mm wide; herbaceous; dark green; aromatic. Leaf-blade surface smooth. Leaf-blade apex attenuate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Synflorescence compound; linear; 20-70 cm long; dense, or lax. Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary; subtended by a spatheole; enclosed. Spatheole lanceolate; 1-2 cm long; herbaceous. Racemes 2; paired; deflexed; 1-1.5 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; semiterete; ciliate on margins. Rhachis hairs 0.5-1 mm long. Rhachis internodes linear; 2.5-3 mm long. Rhachis internode tip transverse; cupuliform. Raceme-bases flattened; subequal; 0.5-1.5 mm long; pubescent, or pilose. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels linear; semiterete; ciliate.
Sterile
Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 2 in number (lower raceme); 0 in upper raceme; sessile and pedicelled. Basal sterile spikelet pedicels fused to internode in lower raceme; swollen in lower raceme. Basal sterile spikelets equalling fertile. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; 3.5-5 mm long; as long as fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; distinctly veined; 7 -veined; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; 3.5-5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pilose; base obtuse; inserted. Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 2 in number (lower raceme); 0 in upper raceme; sessile and pedicelled. Basal sterile spikelet pedicels fused to internode in lower raceme; swollen in lower raceme. Basal sterile spikelets equalling fertile. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; 3.5-5 mm long; as long as fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; distinctly veined; 7 -veined; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; 3.5-5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pilose; base obtuse; inserted.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without oil streaks (or obscure); 2-keeled; keeled laterally; winged on keel; winged narrowly. Lower glume intercarinal veins absent, or obscure. Lower glume surface with V-shaped depression. Lower glume apex emarginate. Upper glume lanceolate; 1-keeled; 1-3 -veined. Upper glume primary vein ciliate. Upper glume apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret linear; 2-4 mm long; hyaline. Fertile lemma linear, or lanceolate; 3 mm long; hyaline; without keel; 1 -veined. Lemma margins ciliate. Lemma apex lobed; 2 -fid; incised 0.5 of lemma length; muticous (rarely), or awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; geniculate; 10-17 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn glabrous. Palea absent or minute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3; 1.5 mm long.
Distribution
Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, and southern tropical.
Reference
Andropogoneae. FTEA 1997.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Loosely tufted robust perennial up to 3 m high
Morphology Leaves Ligules
Ligule scarious, up to 1(–2) mm long
Morphology Leaves
Leaves cordate to subamplexicaul, 8–30 mm wide, dark green
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
False panicle linear, 20–70 cm long; racemes 10–15 mm long, the lowermost internode and pedicel connate and swollen
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Sessile spikelet narrowly elliptic, 3.5–5 mm long; lower glume firmly membranous, narrowly winged, slightly concave and with a V-shaped median groove towards the base, without intercarinal nerves (or these obscure and confined to the tip) or oil-streaks; awn of upper lemma 10–17 mm long, with distinct column Pedicelled spikelet narrowly lanceolate, 3.5–5 mm long, with clear closely spaced nerves.
Distribution
S2 tropical Africa.
Ecology
Riverside

Native to:

Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Cymbopogon giganteus Chiov. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Nov 12, 1968 Scholz [44], Burkina Faso K000386156
Jul 30, 1968 Scholz [44], Burkina Faso K000386155
Oct 17, 1962 Kmoch [154], Burkina Faso K000386160
Kotschy [250] K000280505 isotype
Kotschy [250] K000280504 isotype
Rossetti [61/282], Mauritania K000280508 holotype
Innes, R.R. [31499], Burkina Faso K000386149
Heath, J. [5], Mali K000386163
Duong [s.n.], Mali K000386166
Aké Assi, L. [6363], Burkina Faso K000386158
Innes, R.R. [31477], Burkina Faso K000386152
Hagerup, O. [402], Mali K000386167
Innes, R.R. [31534], Burkina Faso K000386151
Innes, R.R. [31073], Burkina Faso K000386150
Naegele, A. [11], Burkina Faso K000386148
Giessler [67], Burkina Faso K000386157

First published in Alc. Gram. Essenz.: 12 (1909)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
  • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • A. Chev. in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 13: 871
  • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 420.
  • F.T.A. 9: 288
  • Gram. da Essenze 12 (1909)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Robyns, W. (1929). Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1: 1-229. Goemaere, Bruxelles.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by T. A. Cope [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A.V. Bogdan, A Revised List of Kenya Grasses p. 59 (1958).
  • Chiov., Gram. Essenze: 12 (1909).
  • Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 482 (1972).
  • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 105 (1965).
  • Eggeling, Ann. list grasses Ug.: 11 (1947).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 425 (1956).
  • Jackson & Wiehe, Ann. list Nyasaland grasses: 33 (1958).
  • K.W. Harker & D.M. Napper, An Illustrated Guide to the Grasses of Uganda p. 23 (1960).
  • Robyns, Fl. Agrost. Congo Belge 1: 148 (1929).
  • Stapf in Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 288 (1919).

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0