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The genus Parkia was named by the renowned British botanist Robert Brown in honour of the explorer Mungo Park, who mentioned these trees in the account of his travels in West Africa in the late 18th century. Parkia bicolor is one of three African species in this genus, the others being P. biglobosa, a characteristic tree of West African savanna woodland (and the species actually seen by Park), and P. filicoidea, another forest species, mostly from central and eastern Africa.

Parkia bicolor

[FWTA]

Mimosaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
Tall forest tree, to 100 ft. high
Morphology General Crown
Wide crown
Morphology Trunk Buttresses
Well-developed buttresses
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers bluish-red or yellowish-red
Ecology
Often by river banks.

[ILDIS]

International Legume Database and Information Service

Conservation
Not Threatened
Ecology
Africa: Guineo-Congolian forest.
Morphology General Habit
Perennial, Not climbing, Tree

[KSP]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description
A tree from the forests of West and Central Africa, Parkia bicolor has large, reddish, pendent flower heads that are pollinated by fruit bats at night.

The genus Parkia was named by the renowned British botanist Robert Brown in honour of the explorer Mungo Park, who mentioned these trees in the account of his travels in West Africa in the late 18th century. Parkia bicolor is one of three African species in this genus, the others being P. biglobosa, a characteristic tree of West African savanna woodland (and the species actually seen by Park), and P. filicoidea, another forest species, mostly from central and eastern Africa.

All of the African species of Parkia have pendent, reddish flower heads that resemble pom-poms and are pollinated by fruit bats, also known as pteropodid bats.

Species Profile
Geography and distribution

Parkia bicolor occurs across western and central Africa, from Guinea in the west as far as eastern Congo, and south to the Cabinda region of Angola. It occurs in rain forest up to 1,200 m, and often also in gallery forest and swamp forest, usually in regions with more than 2,000 mm of rain per year.

Description

Overview:  A tree up to 35 m tall (sometimes even taller), with a tall bole (unbranched part of the trunk) about 1 m in diameter, widely spreading buttresses and a well-developed, briefly deciduous crown.

Leaves: The leaves are bipinnate (divided into leaflets which divide again), and up to 35 cm long. Each of the numerous pinnae bears 30 or more pairs of small, slightly curved leaflets.

Flowers:  The individual flowers are small, and are massed into bluish-red or orange-red flower heads that are borne on tough, pendent stalks. In each flower head, fertile flowers form a round to elongated ball at the tip. The sterile flowers have long filaments which form a fringe at the base, and this fringe overhangs a ring of specialised nectar-secreting flowers in the middle. The fertile flowers have a 5-lobed corolla, 10 stamens (male parts), and a single ovary with a long terminal style and about 20 ovules. The flowers open in late afternoon and last for one night.

Fruits:  The pods (fruits) are up to 40 cm long x 1.5-3.5 cm broad, twisted and strap-like but swollen over each seed. They hang in bunches in the crown, each bunch arising from the woody, central part of the old flower head. The flattened seeds are 11-15 x 7-10 mm and surrounded by a small amount of yellowish floury pulp that is eaten by dispersers, such as monkeys.

Bat-pollination

A remarkable study by the German biologist Regine Grünmeier, in Cameroon, showed that the flower heads of Parkia bicolor are visited at night by several species of pteropodid fruit bats, including the specialised nectar-feeding bat Megaloglossus . The pollination of P. bicolor featured in a wildlife documentary about Korup National Park, by the film-maker Phil Agland. When bats pollinate the flowers they land on the flower heads, lick nectar that has exuded from the specialised nectar-flowers and become dusted with pollen.

Several non-flying nocturnal mammals, such as pottos, African dormice and bushbabies, are also attracted to the flower heads and can act as pollinators. In the late afternoon and early morning, honeybees and birds also visit in search of nectar and pollen.

Many bat-pollinated plants have white or drab flowers but those of Parkia are unusual as they are either reddish, as in P. bicolor , or yellow (as in species from Asia, Madagascar and some from South America). This is thought to be due, at least in part, to the fact that the bats involved in pollination have relatively good eye-sight and the flower heads are highly reflective when fresh. On starlit nights the flower heads are visible to the bats (and other nocturnal mammals), either against the sky or the tree's foliage.

However, the floral scent of Parkia bicolor is entirely typical for a bat-pollinated plant, being musty and slightly unpleasant. Analyses using gas chromatography have shown that the odour of this species is due to various terpenoids (or isoprenoids) and fatty acid derivatives. Sulphur-containing compounds are not present, although they do contribute to the smell of some other bat-pollinated flowers, such as Adansonia digitata , the African baobab.

Threats and conservation

Taking into account its entire geographical range, Parkia bicolor is not considered threatened at present, although in several countries its distribution is decreasing as forests are destroyed.

Despite not considered threatened, P. bicolor illustrates an important principle in conservation biology. Numerous types of animal are involved in its pollination and dispersal, and in addition it has various pests and diseases, indicating a complex web of relationships that is especially typical of tropical rain forests. An understanding of the relationships within this web can be important in developing conservation strategies - if pollinators and dispersers are not conserved along with plant species, then the plants' long term survival cannot be assured.

In trees of the rain forest canopy, such as P. bicolor , pollination and dispersal occur high above the ground, making these interactions particularly difficult to study.

Conservation assessments carried out by Kew

Parkia bicolor is being monitored as part of the 'Sampled Red List Index Project', which aims to produce conservation assessments for a representative sample of the world's plant species. This information will then be used to monitor trends in extinction risk and help focus conservation efforts where they are needed most.

Uses

Until recently the wood of Parkia bicolor was considered inferior, but because stands of many commercial timber species are becoming depleted, this species is assuming more importance, especially for local construction and joinery. The wood is also used for plywood and pulpwood.

The fruit pulp is edible and the fermented seeds are used as a condiment. The fruit is used in west Africa as bait for catching fish and squirrels. Several parts of the tree are used in traditional medicine. For example, macerated bark is used to treat eye complaints, powdered bark is used to treat wounds and sores, and a leaf pulp is rubbed onto smallpox and chicken pox.

The tree is sometimes retained when forest is cleared for agriculture, as its open, widely spreading crown is useful for shading crops.

Research is needed to determine sustainable levels of harvesting natural stands for timber and other products.

This species at Kew

Dried and spirit-preserved specimens of Parkia bicolor are held in Kew's Herbarium, where they are available to researchers by appointment. The details of some of these specimens, including some images, are available online in the Herbarium Catalogue.

Specimens of wood and bark from P. bicolor are held in Kew's Economic Botany Collection in the Sir Joseph Banks Building, where they are available to researchers by appointment.

Distribution
Angola
Ecology
Rain forest, gallery forest and swamp forest.
Conservation
Least Concern (LC) according to IUCN Red List criteria.
Hazards

None.

[ILDIS]
Use
Medicine, Wood

[KSP]
Use
Timber, medicinal, shade tree.

Native to:

Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Zaïre

French
Faux néré

Parkia bicolor A.Chev. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Oct 1, 2007 Mackinder, B. [500], Cameroon K000338245
Oct 1, 2007 Mackinder, B. [500], Cameroon K000436201
Jul 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [4397], Cameroon K000108296
Jul 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [8408], Cameroon K000108300
Nov 1, 2000 Mackinder, B. [314], Cameroon K000051338
Jan 1, 1999 Gossweiler, J. [7568], Angola K001276570
Jan 1, 1999 Gossweiler, J. [7568], Angola K001276572
Jan 1, 1999 Gossweiler, J. [7568], Angola K001276571
Jan 1, 1992 Olorunfemi, J. [30774], Cameroon K000092916
Mar 1, 1976 Letouzey, R. [14538 bis], Cameroon K000092919
Mar 1, 1976 Letouzey, R. [14513 bis], Cameroon K000092920
Binuyo, R.W.J. [37285], Nigeria 11632.000
Onochie, C. [35271], Nigeria 16388.000
Zenker, G.A. [3498], Cameroon K000232179
Chevalier, A. [(5) 22292], Côte d'Ivoire K000232183
Chevalier, A. [13547], Guinea K000232184
Thomas, D.W. [427], Cameroon K000092915
Thomas, D.W. [3228], Cameroon K000092918
Klaine, R.P. [103], Gabon K000232178

First published in Mém. Soc. Bot. France 8: 34 (1908)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Aké Assi, L. (2001). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. I Boissiera 57: 1-396.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.

Literature

Kew Species Profiles

  • Agland, P. (1982). Korup: an African Rainforest. © ITN Source. (film)
  • Groom, A. (2010). Parkia bicolor. Assessment using IUCN Categories and Criteria 3.1 (IUCN 2001). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Grünmeier, R. (1990). Pollination by bats and non-flying mammals of the African tree Parkia bicolor (Mimosaceae). Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 55: 83-104.
  • Hopkins, H.C. & White, F. (1984). The ecology and chorology of Parkia in Africa. Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belg. 54: 235-266.
  • Hopkins, H.C. (1983). The taxonomy, reproductive biology and economic potential of Parkia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae) in Africa and Madagascar. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 87: 135-167.
  • Pettersson, S., Ervik, F. & Knudsen, J.T. (2004). Floral scent of bat-pollinated species: West Africa vs. the New World. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 82: 161-168.
  • Tchinda, A.T. (2008). Parkia bicolor A.Chev. In: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa 7 (1), Timbers 1, ed. D. Louppe, A.A. Oteng-Amoako & M. Brink, pp. 415-418. PROTA Foundation, Wageningen.

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Aubrév. Fl. For. C. Iv. 1: 196, t. 73
  • Bak. f. Leg. Trop. Afr. 3: 782
  • Gilbert & Boutique in Fl. Congo Belge 3: 144, t. 10.
  • in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 55, Mém. 8: 34 (1908)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Aké Assi, L. (2001). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. I Boissiera 57: 1-396.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.

International Legume Database and Information Service

  • Dalziel, J. M. (1937). The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa
  • Hopkins, H. C. (1983). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 87:135-167. Taxonomy... of Parkia.. in Africa.

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

International Legume Database and Information Service
International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS) V10.39 Nov 2011
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Species Profiles
Kew Species Profiles
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0