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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[FWTA]

Acanthaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
A coarse herb or undershrub up to 12 ft. high, with 4-angled pithy stems
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Viscid-hairy inflorescence of lilac or pale violet flowers 1 in. long.

[FTEA]

Acanthaceae (part 2), Kaj Vollesen. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

Type
Type: Ethiopia, Semien Mts, Ghaba Valley, Steudner 1497 (K!, iso.)
Morphology General Habit
Erect or scrambling/scandent shrubby herb to 3(–5) m tall, often forming large almost impenetrable thickets and covering large areas as a “monoculture”; whole plant usually with an overpowering aromatic or foetid smell; young stems subglabrous to sericeous-puberulent with downwardly directed hairs (very rarely tomentose)
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with petiole of stem-leaves 2.5–10(–11.5) cm long; lamina of stem-leaves ovate to broadly cordiform, 7–21 × 3–15 cm, apex acuminate to cuspidate, base subcordate to cordate with sinus to 1 cm deep, margin grossly crenate-dentate with teeth to 1(–2) cm long, sparsely sericeous-puberulent to -pubescent, usually only along midrib and main veins (rarely subglabrous)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence an open branched panicle with long spreading branches, usually also with long branches developing lateral panicles from basal nodes or upper leaf axils, (10–)15–35 cm long; flowers in lax dichasia with up to 9 flowers or solitary towards apex of panicle; bracts green, leafy, persistent, indumentum as leaves; branches and pedicels sericeous-puberulent to puberulous or densely so and with sparse to dense long capitate glands; pediels to 5(–10) mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx puberulent to puberulous and with scattered to dense long purplish glands (rarely subsessile or absent); dorsal lobe (5–)8–21(–30 in fruit) mm long, ventral and lateral (5–)7–19(–28 in fruit) mm long; lobes linear to lanceolate, narrowly elliptic or narrowly spathulate, 0.5–2 mm wide, subacute
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white to pale mauve with brown throat and one or two yellow patches on lower lip, throat with dense band of long hairs on lower lip, sparser on lateral lobes and only a few or none on dorsal lobes, 17–30(–33) mm long, cylindric part of tube 1–2(–3) mm long, throat 7–19 mm long; papillate area on lower lip of two separate elipsoid patches or fused to one; lobes all similar, broadly elliptic, 8–12(–15) × 6–10(–14) mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Free part of filaments 2–5 mm long and fused free part ± 1 mm, glabrous or longer with scattered hairs; anthers 3–5 mm long, spur 1.5–2 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma ± 2 mm long, dorsal lobe absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary densely hairy and glandular in apical 1/2– 2/3 or all over
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 15–24(–26) mm long, hairy and glandular all over or glabrous in basal half, more rarely (in Tanzania) only hairy at the very tip
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed 4–6 × 3.5–5 mm
Figures
Fig 34, p224
Ecology
Evergreen montane forest, including bamboo forest, often on edges or in clearings, also in secondary forest and upland grassland and bushland derived from forest; (1200–)1500–2700 m
Note
The most common and widespread species in the genus and consequently also the most variable, but there seems to be no satisfactory way of dividing the multitude of local forms into distinct taxonomic entities. Reported several times from different parts of its area as flowering at intervals of seven years. C.B.Clarke (l.c.) cites the type collection of Mimulopsis spathulata as Scott Elliot 6060, but there seems little doubt that this was a transcription error on the duplicate which he saw in Berlin.
Distribution
Range: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Nigeria, Cameroon, Bioko, CongoKinshasa, Rwanda, Burundi, Sudan, Ethiopia, Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe Flora districts: T2 T3 T4 K3 K4 K5 K6 K 7 T6 T7

Native to:

Burundi, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Mimulopsis solmsii Schweinf. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Apr 1, 2009 Lebrun [5282], Congo K000450225
Jul 1, 2007 Tchiengue, B. [2602], Cameroon K000436155
Jul 1, 2007 Tchiengue, B. [2279], Cameroon K000437552
Jul 1, 2007 Tchiengue, B. [2602], Cameroon K000746007
Jul 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [4413], Cameroon K000027240
Jan 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [4325], Cameroon K000109343
Jan 1, 2001 Plot Voucher [B 4], Cameroon K000190219
Jan 1, 1999 Pollard, B.J. [45], Cameroon K000339118
Jan 1, 1999 Etuge, M. [3386], Cameroon K000339119
Jan 1, 1999 Cheek, M. [8568], Cameroon K000339117
Jan 1, 1999 Cable, S. [3004], Cameroon K000339115
Jan 1, 1999 Buzgo, M. [604], Cameroon K000339116
Jan 1, 1993 Thomas, D.W. [9421], Cameroon K000011397
Jan 1, 1993 Thomas, D.W. [9422], Cameroon K000011398
Jan 1, 1993 Cheek, M. [3659a], Cameroon K000518947
Jan 1, 1993 Cheek, M. [3660], Cameroon K000518948
Dec 1, 1974 Letouzey, R. [13465], Cameroon K000029087
Jan 1, 1961 Morton, J.K. [693], Cameroon K000029090
Jun 1, 1960 Hepper, F.N. [2208], Cameroon K000029094
Jan 1, 1960 Brenan, J.P.M. [0s.n.3], Cameroon K000029089
Oct 3, 1951 Preuss P. R. [814], Cameroon K000029096 Unknown type material
Oct 3, 1951 Preuss P. R. [814], Cameroon K000029095 Unknown type material
Oct 3, 1951 Preuss P. R. [1056], Cameroon K000029097 Unknown type material
Oct 3, 1951 Thom [s.n.], Tanzania K000394139 syntype
Oct 3, 1951 Scott Elliot, G.F. [6960], Kenya K000394141 isotype
Jan 1, 1951 Mann, G. [1260], Cameroon K000029083
Jan 1, 1951 Maitland, T.D. [1011], Cameroon K000029085
Jan 1, 1951 Mann, G. [1260], Cameroon K000029082
Jan 1, 1951 Dunlap [26], Cameroon K000029091
Jan 1, 1951 Maitland, T.D. [1011], Cameroon K000029086
Jan 1, 1951 Dunlap [54], Cameroon K000029092
Jan 1, 1951 Maitland, T.D. [1314], Cameroon K000029084
Jan 1, 1951 Mann, G. [1965], Cameroon K000029081
Nov 26, 1896 Steudner [1497], Ethiopia K000394145
Dawkins, H.C. [734], Uganda 13099.000
Tweedie, E.M. [1090], Kenya 4279.000
Patel, H. [7402], Mozambique K000613664
Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [8926], Cameroon K000029088
Thom [s.n.], Tanzania K000394140 syntype
Mphamba, S. [13], Mozambique K000613704
Jan 1, 1983 Reekmans, M. [6991], Burundi Mimulopsis solmsii var. orophila K000394146 holotype
Keay, R.W. [28403], Cameroon Mimulopsis violacea 4280.000

First published in Verh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 18: 677 (1868)

Accepted by

  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
  • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1985). Flora du Rwanda 3: 1-729. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Vollesen, K. (2008). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Acanthaceae(1): 1-285.
  • Vollesen, K. (2013). Flora Zambesiaca 8(5): 1-184. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • F.T.A. 5: 55
  • Milne-Redhead in Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 9: 21 (1954).
  • in Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 18: 677 (1868)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
  • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1985). Flora du Rwanda 3: 1-729. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Binns, Checklist Herb. Fl. Malawi: 15 (1968)
  • Biol. Skr. 51(2): 450 (2005)
  • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 394, pl. 126 (1987)
  • E.J. 18: 63 (1893)
  • E.P.A.: 932 (1964)
  • Engler, Hochgebirgsfl. Trop. Afr.: 388 (1892)
  • F.E.E. 5: 383 (2006).
  • F.P.S. 3: 183 (1956)
  • F.T.A. 5: 55 (1899)
  • F.W.T.A., ed. 2, 2: 403 (1963)
  • Fl. Rwanda 3: 474 (1985)
  • K.T.S.L.: 605 (1994)
  • Lebrun & Stork, Enum. Pl. Afr. Trop. 4: 495 (1997)
  • Symb. Bot. Ups. 29(3): 162 (1991)
  • U.K.W.F. ed. 2: 269, pl. 117 (1994)
  • U.K.W.F.: 587 (1974)
  • Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 18: 677 (1868)
  • White et al., For. Fl. Malawi: 118 (2001)

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0