Family:
Araceae Juss.

Remusatia vivipara (Roxb.) Schott

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

[CATE]

CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

Diagnostic
Flattened tuber, with one or many leaves; stem with leaves, carrying bulbils; spadix with an appendix; inflorescences appearing with the leaves; terrestrial or epiphytes.
General Description
Tuber globose, flattened, 2-3 cm in diameter and 1.5-2 cm thick. Cataphylls 8-15 cm long; stem erect, brown-reddish 15-25 x 5mm, bearing bulbils on the upper half; LEAVES: 1 (-3) leaves; petiole cylindric, 20-50 cm long. Bulbils 6-9 x 3-4 mm. Leaf blade peltate, ovate (insertion of petiole in the lower 1/3) cordate at the base, cuspidate at the apex, 20-40 x 13-25 cm, dark green on the top; primary veins and the midrib very pale, sometimes slightly green-brownish at the start of the veins; 4-7 primary lateral veins each side, forming an angle of 45º with the midrib; posterior lobes up to half the length of the anterior lobes, joined for ca. 3/4 of their length; Sinus rounded at the base. INFLORESCENCE: Peduncle 10-15 cm long. Spathe 9.5-13.5 cm long; exterior of tube green, much paler inside, 3.5-4.5 x 1 cm diameter; blade yellow, 6-9 cm long, upper 1/3 the same width, with a point 3-5 mm long; spathe limb reflects during anthesis. Female zone of spadix ca. 2 cm long; fertile male zone elliptic, 1.5 cm long, a little shorter, but thicker than, the sterile zone; spadix without appendix. Synandrodium clavate, with 2-3 stamens; thecae elongate, dehiscing via an apical pore. Synandrodium flattened. Ovary obovoid, 1 or 2-4 incomplete locules; ovules numerous, hemiorthotropous; placentation parietal; stigma sessile, discoid. INFRUCTESCENCE: Berries obovoid, globose, enclosed by the spathe; seeds numerous, elliptic. Chromosomes 2n=56 Tuber depressed globose, 2–4 × 3.5–5cm; stolons erect, simple, stout; bulbils ellipsoid, 0.5–2.5mm, stout; bristles to 1.5mm, stout. Cataphylls 4 or more, brownish, broad, concealing peduncle, ca. 15 × 3cm. Petiole 19–42cm, proximal 1/4 sheathing; leaf blade glossy on both sides, pale green abaxially, green adaxially, oblong-ovate or lanceolate, 11–33 × 7–19.5cm, sinus 1.5–3cm; intramarginal vein indistinct. Flowering before leaves develop. Peduncle 6–12cm. Spathe tube green outside, 3–5 × 1.3–2cm; limb initially erect, later reflexed, yellow inside, obovate, 5.3–11.5 × 2.5–9cm, narrowed to base, apex acute, apiculate. Spadix: female zone 1.7–2cm × 7–9mm, with 3 or 4 whorls of sterile ovaries at apex and 1 or 2 whorls at base; sterile zone 1.1–2.5cm, slender, tapering distally; male zone yellowish, clavate, cylindric, 1.5–2.2cm × 4–7mm. 2n = 28, 42.
Habitat
Subtropical forests, epiphytic, on rocks, cliff ledges.
Growing in the humic soil in forests, found in collections of humus on limestone. (Ankarana massif) or gneiss or as an epiphyte, sometimes among Asplenium nidus and or Orchids. The bulbils cling with their bracts hooked in the fur or in the plumage of the animals which ensure in this way dispersal of the species.
Phenology
Fl. Apr–Sep. (Northern Hemisphere)
Vernacular
yan yu

[FTEA]

Araceae, S.J. Mayo. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

Morphology General Habit
Seasonally dormant, rupicolous or epiphytic herb.
Vegetative Multiplication Tubers
Tuber subglobose, 2–4 cm. in diameter, covered in brown fibrous cataphyll remnants.
Vegetative Multiplication Bulbils
Bulbils ovoid, 0.4–0.5 cm. long, green, covered in numerous tightly-overlapping glume-like scales with aristate recurved tips, borne in clusters at nodes of several erect aerial copper-coloured sympodial axes, each about 20 cm. long, arising from tuber and bearing small brown scale leaves.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 1–2, often solitary, petiole green, terete, 30–40 cm. long; blade broadly peltate, ovate-cordate, 20–30 cm. long, 14–19 cm. broad, or larger, bright green, acute-acuminate, base with parabolic sinus ± 3 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence rarely seen, subtended by several broadly oblong cataphylls.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Peduncles
Peduncle 9–12 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Spathe
Spathe 7–11 cm. long; tube ovoid, 2–3 cm. long, green, strongly constricted at apex; limb subcircular to broadly spathulate, 6–8 cm. long, 5–6.5 cm. broad, creamy yellow, reflexed at maturity.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spadix
Spadix 3–4.5 cm. long; staminate part clavate, creamy white, 0.7–1.3 cm. long, 0.5 cm. in diameter; intermediate sterile part conic, ± 1.1 cm. long, 0.2 cm. in diameter; pistillate part subcylindric, green, ± 1.8 cm. long, 0.8 cm. in diameter.
Figures
Fig. 11.
Habitat
Riverine forest; 900–1000 m.
Distribution
T6 also West and Central Africa

[FWTA]

Araceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

Ecology
Epiphytic on trees by streams and associated with fern roots, or in moist cracks in rocks
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers appearing rarely and during leafless stage
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Spathe
Spathe greenish cream coloured
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spadix
Spadix whitish
Morphology General Shoots
Bulbiliferous shoot leafless and brown.

[CATE]
Use
The tubers are poisonous. They are used externally to treat mastitis, traumatic injuries, abscesses, and swellings.

Native to:

Assam, Bangladesh, Cameroon, Central African Repu, China South-Central, Christmas I., Comoros, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Myanmar, Nepal, Nigeria, Northern Territory, Oman, Queensland, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre

Remusatia vivipara (Roxb.) Schott appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Apr 1, 1996 Cheek, M. [7616], Cameroon K000107836 No
Sep 1, 1995 Balding, S. [70], Cameroon K000107828 No
Jan 1, 1975 R.K.Brummitt, S.M. Chisumpa [14015], Zambia K000499423 Yes
19155.000 No
Schilling [1625], Nepal 56012.000 No
Bogner [2121] 57570.000 No
Chantoranothai, P. [90/299], Thailand 59034.000 No
59039.000 No
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8939], Nepal K001131883 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8939], Nepal K001131884 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8939], Nepal K001131882 Yes
Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8939], Myanmar K001131886 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8939], Myanmar K001131885 Yes

First published in H.W.Schott & S.L.Endlicher, Melet. Bot.: 18 (1832)

Accepted by

  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Boyce, P.C., Sookchaloem, D., Hetterscheid, W.L.A., Gusman, G., Jacobsen, N., Idei, T. & Nguyen, V.D. (2012). Flora of Thailand 11(2): 101-325. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Haigh, A. & Boyce, P.C. (2012). Flora Zambesiaca 12(1): 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
  • Sasikala, K., Vajravelu, E. & Daniel, P. (2019). Fascicles of Flora of India 29: 1-357. Botanical Survey of India, New Delhi.
  • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Aké Assi, Contrib. 2: 21 [229].
  • Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 6: 521
  • Melet. 1: 18 (1932)

CATE Araceae

  • Bogner, J. 1975. Aracées. Flore de Madagascar et des Comores. 31e. famille: 75 pp.
  • Hen(g) Li, Guang Hua Zhu, Boyce, P.C., Murata, J., Hetterscheid, W.L.A., Bogner, J. & Jacobsen, N. 2010. Araceae in Flora of China @ efloras.org.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
  • Sasikala, K., Vajravelu, E. & Daniel, P. (2019). Fascicles of Flora of India 29: 1-357. Botanical Survey of India, New Delhi.
  • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Bogner in Fl. Madag. 31: 28 (1975).
  • Engl. in Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahelm 5: 300 (1913).
  • Hepper in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 122 (1968).
  • Krause in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich 71 (IV. 23E): 16, fig. 4A–M (1920).
  • Nicolson in Fl. Hassan Distr.: 788, t. 13, fig. 117 (1976).
  • Robyns in Ann. Soc. Sci. Brux., sér. B, 51: 222 (1931).
  • Schott in Schott & Endl., Melet. Bot.: 18 (1832).

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • CATE Araceae

    Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images