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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[FTEA]

Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

Morphology General Habit
Trees, free-standing or scandent shrubs or woody lianes, sometimes with branches modified as spines or climbing aids
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, rarely (not in East Africa) 1-foliolate; stipules various, often small and usually caducous; stipels absent; leaflets alternate, rarely some of them subopposite
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal and axillary, paniculate or more rarely simply racemose; bracts and bracteoles small, usually caducous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx campanulate, shortly 5-lobed, rarely with the lateral lobes reduced and thus 3-lobed; lowest lobe usually narrower and the longest, the upper pair usually broader than the others and often more united
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla small, white to yellowish-cream, sometimes flushed mauve or purplish, often fragrant; standard usually emarginate, with variously developed claw, glabrous or with only scattered hairs; wings free, ± oblong, narrowed or auriculate at base of blade; keel-petals obtuse, united on lower side towards apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 9 or 10, all united in a sheath open above, or with the vexillary stamen free or divided into 2 subequal phalanges or sometimes more irregularly divided; anthers small, erect, basifixed with apical dehiscence
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary stipitate, with few ovules; style usually incurved and with a small terminal stigma
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit indehiscent, usually oblong, linear or oblong-elliptic, samaroid, sometimes thickened over the seed-cavity, or sometimes (not in East Africa) thickened overall and variously shaped
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds reniform and smooth in East Africa, elsewhere sometimes oblong or variously curved and wrinkled; hilum and rim-aril small.

[LOWO]

Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

Note

The present circumscription of Dalbergieae sens. lat. contains radical changes to Dalbergieae sensu Polhill (1981d: 233–242). In the first instance it takes a traditional view of the tribe by including genera such as Vatairea and Vataireopsis (now in the Vataireoid clade, see Figs. 1& 40) and Andira and Hymenolobium, which in Wojciechowski et al. (2004) are sister to the combined Dalbergioid clade of Lavin et al. (2001a), plus Amorpheae. The bulk of the treatment, however, recognises the cryptic Dalbergioid clade (Lavin et al., 2001a) as comprising tribe Dalbergieae sens. lat., diagnosed by the synapomorphy of aeschynomenoid root nodules. This clade includes all the genera placed in the Dalbergieae sensu Polhill (1981d: 233– 242), the Aeschynomeneae sensu Rudd (1981) and the Adesmieae sensu Polhill (1981g: 355–356), plus subtribe Bryinae of the Desmodieae sensu Ohashi et al. (1981) as well as the genus Diphysa (tribe Robinieae sensu Polhill & Sousa (1981)).The placements of all members of the Dalbergioid clade within the classification presented here and in those of Polhill (1981d: 233–242; 1981g: 355–356), Polhill & Sousa (1981), Ohashi et al. (1981) and Rudd (1981) are listed in Fig. 40.

Dalbergieae sensu Polhill (1981d) contained 19 genera defined by woody habit, supposedly plesiomorphic flowers, pods with a specialised seed chamber and seeds that accumulated alkaloids. Polhill (1981d) noted that there seemed to be two centres within the Dalbergieae: one around Andira with Hymenolobium, Vatairea, Vataireopsis, Dalbergia, and Machaerium, and one around Pterocarpus. He also highlighted evidence from wood anatomy (Baretta-Kuipers, 1981) which showed that Andira, Hymenolobium, Vatairea, and Vataireopsis have coarser wood structures more typical of members of the Sophoreae than the remaining members of the Dalbergieae. The study of fruit and seedling morphology by Lima (1990) further supported these two centres within the Dalbergieae: one including Andira, Hymenolobium, Vatairea, and Vataireopsis, and the second the remaining genera. Most recently several molecular and morphological studies (e.g., Lavin et al., 2001a; Pennington et al., 2001; Wojciechowski et al., 2004) confirm that these four genera do not belong in the Dalbergioid clade. Since there is, however, still much work to be done to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of these four genera, they have been kept in tribe Dalbergieae sens. lat. in this treatment to avoid tentative placements, which might be treated by users as formal.

The tribe Aeschynomeneae sensu Rudd (1981) contained 25 genera characterised by lomentaceous pods, although some members lack loments (e.g., Arachis, Ormocarpopsis, Diphysa spp., Ormocarpum spp., and Pictetia spp.). None of the Aeschynomeneae had previously been considered closely related to the Dalbergieae, but the work of Lavin et al. (2001a) has resolved all the ‘aeschynomenoid genera’ within the Dalbergioid clade.

The taxonomic history of the monogeneric tribe Adesmieae sensu Polhill (1981g) is very different from that of the Dalbergieae. The Adesmieae combines the presumed plesiomorphic trait of free stamen filaments, with presence of lomentaceous pods that are supposedly derived. This combination of features suggested a taxonomically isolated position far removed from the Dalbergieae. The analyses of Lavin et al. (2001a) based on molecular sequence and morphological data, however, support Adesmia (nested together with five genera of Rudd’s Aeschynomeneae) being sister to the Pterocarpus and Dalbergia clades. The neotropical genera Brya and Cranocarpus were placed together in a new subtribe Bryinae of Desmodieae in the classification of Ohashi et al. (1981). The features common to these genera are periporate pollen and glochidiate hairs or glandular trichomes. In the molecular studies of Doyle et al. (1995) and Bailey et al. (1997), Brya and Cranocarpus did not lack the intron for the chloroplast gene rpl2 nor for the open reading frame ORF184, which are characteristic of the other desmodioid genera studied. Bailey et al. (1997), therefore, suggested that Brya and Cranocarpus should be removed from the Desmodieae. Their findings were strongly corroborated by the three gene analyses of Lavin et al. (2001a) which place the two genera in the Pterocarpus clade (Fig. 40).

One further transfer has been made in the Dalbergioid clade since Rudd (1981) and Polhill & Sousa (1981). Lavin (1987) transferred Diphysa from the Robinieae to tribe Aeschynomeneae based on the absence of canavanine in the seeds, a feature consistently present in the Robinieae (Lavin, 1986). Lavin (1987) also listed 14 morphological characters that placed Diphysa with the Aeschynomeneae rather than the Robinieae. In the phylogenetic analyses of Lavin et al. (2001a), Diphysa is resolved in the Dalbergioid clade nested within the ‘transatlantic clade’ (Fig. 40), first identified by Lavin et al. (2000).

Finally, since 1981 four new genera have been published: the Brazilian monotypic Grazielodendron (Lima, 1983b), the possibly extinct Madagascan endemic Peltiera (Labat & Du Puy, 1997), Zygocarpum, the Horn of Africa – Arabian segregate of Ormocarpum (Thulin & Lavin, 2001) and Maraniona from northern Peru (Hughes et al., 2004). Three genera have also been placed in synonymy since 1981: the Caribbean genus Belairia which is a synonym of Pictetia (Beyra-Matos & Lavin, 1999), and the genera Pachecoa and Arthrocarpum which Thulin (1999) synonymised under Chapmannia. In this treatment 49 genera and (1319) –1325–(1331) species are recognised in Dalbergieae sens. lat. (including 4 basally branching dalbergioid genera comprising c. 58 species, and (1261)–1267– (1273) species in the 45 genera of the Dalbergioid clade [Lavin et al., 2001a]).The following informal groupings of genera are based on the work of Lavin et al. (2001a): Adesmia clade: 6 genera; c. 360 species; neotropical except Zornia, which is pantropical. Pterocarpus clade: 22 genera; c. 200 species centred in the Neotropics, Pterocarpus and Stylosanthes are pantropical, Inocarpus Asian, and Chapmannia transatlantic.Dalbergia clade: 17 genera; c. 706 species which are pantropical, but centred in Africa; Weberbauerella, Soemmeringia, Pictetia and Diphysa are neotropical, Machaerium transatlantic, Dalbergia and Aeschynomene are pantropical, and Geissaspis Asian. Isolated genera: 4 genera; 58 species, neotropical except Andira, which has one amphiatlantic species.

Thothathri (1987) subdivided Dalbergia from the Indian subcontinent into four sections based on androecium and fruit type; Carvalho (1997) treated the Brazilian species in five sections based on inflorescence and fruit types. The combined analyses of Lavin et al. (2001a) place Dalbergia in the Dalbergia clade sister to Machaerium and Aeschynomene subgen. Ochopodium (Fig. 40)
Vernacular
nambar, palisandro, ebonywood, cocobolo, tulipwood, blackwood, rosewood, kingwood, sisam
Habit
Shrubs, trees and climbing lianas, some species vary in habit from scandent shrubs in dry habitats to robust lianas in humid areas
Ecology
Tropical rain forest to seasonally dry tropical to subtropical humid and dry forest, woodland, bushland, thicket and wooded grassland
Distribution
pantropical, centred in the Old World with 60-70 species in Africa (1 sp., D. ecastaphyllum (L.) Taub., reaches India), 43 spp. in Madagascar, of which 42 are endemic; about 80 species in Asia with 33 species in India (19 endemic), 44 in Indo-China, and eight in New Guinea. Two of the Asian species (D. candenatensis (Dennst.) Prain and D. densa Benth.) reach Australia; c. 60-70 spp. occur in the neotropics with 45-50 spp. in S America (centred in Amazonia) and c. 15-20 spp. in tropical Mexico to C America and the Caribbean

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca Leguminosae subfamily Papillionoideae byJ.M. Lock*

Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers white or violet-purple, fragrant, in terminal or axillary and terminal panicles, rarely in cymose racemes; bracts and bracteoles caducous or subpersistent. Flowers white or violet-purple, fragrant, in terminal or axillary and terminal panicles, rarely in cymose racemes; bracts and bracteoles caducous or subpersistent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5-dentate, with upper teeth broader than the lower ones. Calyx 5-dentate, with upper teeth broader than the lower ones.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary stipitate, few-ovulate; style incurved; stigma small, terminal.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pod indehiscent, flat, oblong or linear, ± thickened over the seeds. Pod indehiscent, flat, oblong or linear, ± thickened over the seeds.
Morphology General Habit
Trees, shrubs or lianes, occasionally spiny. Trees, shrubs or lianes, occasionally spiny.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves imparipinnate, rarely unifoliolate (not in Flora area); leaflets alternate to subopposite; stipules caducous or sometimes subpersistent. Leaves imparipinnate, rarely unifoliolate (not in Flora area); leaflets alternate to subopposite; stipules caducous or sometimes subpersistent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals clawed; standard circular to obovate; wings oblong-obovate; keel petals usually dorsally connate at the apex, sometimes free. Petals clawed; standard circular to obovate; wings oblong-obovate; keel petals usually dorsally connate at the apex, sometimes free.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens connate into a dorsally split sheath, usually the upper one free or absent or stamens in 2 bundles of 5; anthers small, erect, didymous, the thecae dehiscing by an apical slit. Stamens connate into a dorsally split sheath, usually the upper one free or absent or stamens in 2 bundles of 5; anthers small, erect, didymous, the thecae dehiscing by an apical slit.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary stipitate, few-ovulate; style incurved; stigma small, terminal.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed reniform, compressed; radicle inflexed. Seed reniform, compressed; radicle inflexed.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Trees, free-standing or scandent shrubs or woody lianes, sometimes with branches modified as thorns or climbing aids
Morphology Leaves
Leaves imparipinnate; leaflets usually alternate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Flowers in panicles or more rarely in racemes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx shortly 5-toothed; lowest lobe usually narrower and the longest, the upper pair usually broader than the others and often more united
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla small, usually white and fragrant; wings free
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 9 or 10, usually all united into a tube; anthers basifixed with apical dehiscence
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pod indehiscent, samaroid, 1–few-seeded
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds reniform.
Distribution
Some 270 species, pantropical.

[LOWO]
Use
Machaerium species are widely used in forest management as shade plants and for the recovery of degraded areas; the wood of many species ( caviuna, pau ferro, santos rosewood, morado ), is hard and used for fine furniture, cabinetry, decorative veneers, panelling, pianos, flutes, axe handles and fence posts (the wood is resistant to decay); the reddish sap of some species has been used by native tribes to treat snakebite and the leaves of other species are a cocaine substitute; contact dermatitis is reported from the wood

Native to:

Afghanistan, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Somalia, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Free State, Iraq, Niger, Oman, Palestine

Dalbergia L.f. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
May 1, 2010 Burchell [3114], Brazil K000909411
Dec 2, 2009 Árbocz, G.F. [4866], Brazil K000909432
Feb 1, 2007 Cheek, M. [12445], Cameroon K000436876
Nov 1, 2002 Cheek, M. [7799], Cameroon K000008370
Jan 1, 1998 Acevedo-Rodriguez, P. [8371], Brazil K000909440
Jan 1, 1997 Rodriguez, P.A. [7962], Brazil K000909443
Jan 1, 1997 Acevedo-Rodriguez, P. [8200], Brazil K000909442
Jan 1, 1997 Acevedo-Rodriguez, P. [8051], Brazil K000909441
Mar 1, 1993 Burchell [2186], Brazil K000909406
Jan 1, 1990 Cid Ferreira, C.A. [9100], Brazil K000909413
Jan 1, 1986 Thomas, D.W. [2615], Cameroon K000087494
Jan 1, 1972 Maas, P.J.M. [12947], Brazil K000909422
McWhirter, J. [170], Madagascar 31909.000
McWhirter, J. [249], Madagascar 32183.000
McWhirter, J. [170], Madagascar 32192.000
Colombia 44672.000
de Carvalho, A.M. [2147], Brazil 54644.000
de Carvalho, A.M. [2275], Brazil 54648.000
Du Puy, D. [M574], Madagascar 70193.000
Barham, J. [9], Thailand K000764333
Oliveira, A.R.S. [276], Brazil K000909412
Prance, G.T. [3266], Brazil K000909416
Lopes, M.A. [510], Brazil K000909423
Mendonça, R.C. [4255], Brazil K000909425
Burchell [2874], Brazil K000909426
Carvalho, A.M. [2133], Brazil K000909433
Fonseca, M.L. [1125], Brazil K000909445
Lewis, G.P. [1568], Brazil K000909401
Carvalho, A.M. [2321], Brazil K000909403
Heringer, E.P. [16926], Brazil K000909410
Mendonça, R.C. [4255], Brazil K000909424
Hatschbach, G.G. [78415], Brazil K000909436
Hatschbach, G.G. [78469], Brazil K000909437
Queiroz, L.P. [12626], Brazil K000909418
Hamilton, W.D. [18], Brazil K000909438
Riedel [693], Brazil K000909415
Rocha, M.P. [3041], Brazil K000909430
Burchell [9874], Brazil K000909427
Tschá, M.C. [263], Brazil K000909397
s.coll. [1681], Brazil K000909387
Glaziou, A. [20282], Brazil K000835077
Hatschbach, G.G. [67628], Brazil K000909446
Carvalho, A.M. [2147], Brazil K000909405
Prance, G.T. [5616], Rondônia K000835017
Barham, J. [9], Thailand K000764332
Hatschbach, G.G. [67821], Brazil K000909435
Prance, G.T. [14134], Brazil K000909414
Lewis, G.P. [1568], Brazil K000909402
Glaziou [10663], Brazil K000909428
Heringer, E.P. [15079], Brazil K000909439
Carvalho, A.M. [2335], Brazil K000909409
Cid Ferreira, C.A. [3671], Brazil K000909394
Thomas, D.W. [2526], Cameroon K000087493
Rocha, M.P. [3041], Brazil K000909404
Fonseca, M.L. [1125], Brazil K000909444
Krukoff, B.A. [4807], Brazil K000909392
Laurênio, A. [281], Brazil K000909398
Carvalho, A.M. [2275], Brazil K000909400
Heringer, E.P. [16926], Brazil K000909407
Krukoff, B.A. [1498], Brazil K000909417
s.coll. [s.n.] K000909395
Meireles, J.E. [431], Brazil K000909419
Prance, G.T. [5581], Brazil K000909421
Rocha, M.P. [3041], Brazil K000909429
Silva, J.M. [5798], Brazil K000909420
Ducke, A. [s.n.], Brazil K000909391
Irwin, H.S. [2729], Brazil K000909399
Irwin, H.S. [2729], Brazil K000909396
Maitland, T.D. [744], Cameroon K000087495
Rocha, M.P. [3041], Brazil K000909431
Hatschbach, G.G. [56566], Brazil K000909434
Krukoff, B.A. [6271], Brazil K000909393
Heringer, E.P. [16926], Brazil K000909408

First published in Suppl. Pl.: 52 (1782)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (2000). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS D: 1-30141.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 2: 231.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Bentham in Bentham & Hooker, Gen. Pl. 1: 544 (1865).
  • Suppl. Pl.: 52 (1781) nom. conserv.
  • —Bentham in Bentham & Hooker, Gen. Pl. 1: 544 (1865).

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Suppl. Pl.: 52 (1781), nom. conserv.

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Legumes of the World Online
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Wood Anatomy Microscope Slides
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/