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This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Tropical America.
Marsdenia cf. altissima (Jacq.) Dugand

[KBu]

Espírito Santo, F., Rapini, A., Ribeiro, P.L. et al. (2019). Phylogeny of the tribe Marsdenieae (Apocynaceae), reinstatement of Ruehssia and the taxonomic treatment of the genus in Brazil. Kew Bulletin 74: 30. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-019-9807-4

Conservation
Due to the broad distribution and high number of collections, Ruehssia altissima is assessed as Least Concern: LC.
Distribution
Broadly distributed in South America, from Colombia to northern Argentina (Fontella-Pereira et al. 2004); in Brazil, the species is mainly represented in Northeast and Centre-West regions, less frequent in North and Southeast and absent in South region.
Ecology
From forests to savannas, including disturbed vegetation, also in rocky outcrops, both granitic and limestone.
Morphology General Habit
Lianas; stems tomentose to villous, basal stems corky and glabrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with petiole 1.5 – 8.2 cm long, villous; lamina 4 – 16.1 × 2.9 – 15.6 cm, cordiform, occasionally orbicular, base cordate, apex obtuse to acuminate, margins flat to slightly revolute, adaxially with 6 – 10 colleters at the base of the main vein, membranous, pilose to villous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 3 – 6.5 × 2 – 2.8 mm, ovate or oblong-elliptic, apex obtuse, margins ciliate, abaxially villous, adaxially with or without 5 alternisepalous colleters at the base of calyx
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla urceolate to campanulate, abaxially greenish, pubescent, adaxially vinaceous, 5-barbate; tube 3.7 – 5.6 × 3.8 – 4.5 mm; lobes 2.7 – 3.7 × 2.1 – 3.1 mm, broadly ovate, suborbicular or broadly oblong, recurved, apex rounded, margins not ciliate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corona
Corona lobes 1.8 – 2.2 × 1.05 – 1.4 mm, ovate to oblong-ovate, completely fused to the anther, except for a small free apical triangular ligule (c. 0.3 mm long)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynostegium
Gynostegium c. 3.2 mm high, subsessile, inserted in the corolla tube; style-head c. 0.51 × 0.54 mm, conical; anthers c. 0.7 × 0.2 mm, apical membranous appendix 1.15 – 1.41 × 0.92 – 1.05 mm, triangular; corpusculum 0.13 – 0.15 × 0.04 – 0.05 mm, ellipsoid to ovoid, apex obtuse, straight; caudicles 0.4 – 0.47 mm long, distally plicate; pollinia 0.8 – 0.88 × 0.3 – 0.35 mm, ellipsoid to obovoid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Follicles 18.2 – 20.8 × 3.5 – 7.8 cm, ellipsoid to oblong-ellipsoid, villous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences umbelliform or glomerulate, 10 – 30 flowers; peduncle 0.3 – 1.5 cm long, villous; bracts 4.2 – 11.5 × 1 – 4.5 mm, linear or oblanceolate, margins ciliate; pedicels 2 – 8 mm long, villous
Note
Ruehssia altissima is characterised by the tomentose to villous branches, with leaves usually cordiform, pilose to villous on both sides, multiflorous and congested inflorescences, flowers with corolla abaxially greenish and pubescent, adaxially vinaceous and 5-barbate, pollinaria with a tiny corpusculum and distally plicate caudicles and large, ellipsoid to oblong-ellipsoid, villous fruits. Due to its broad distribution in South America and morphological variation, R. altissima presents several heterotypic synonyms. The synonyms presented here follow Dugand (1966) and Morillo (1978). Jacquin’s types are scattered throughout Europe (D’Arcy 1970), and that of Asclepias altissima was not found. Since there is no illustration and no evidence of a specimen of A. altissima in its protologue, we select the illustration in Jacquin (1763, tab. 57), which is sufficient for its recognition, as the neotype.
Phenology
Collected with flowers from September to June and with fruits throughout the year.
Type
Colombia, Cartagena, Jacquin s.n. (not found). [Neotype: Jacquin (1763: 84; tab. 57, selected here)].

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1700 m.; Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe.
Morphology General Habit
Trepadora, liana
Conservation
No Evaluada

Native to:

Argentina Northwest, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela

Ruehssia altissima (Jacq.) F.Esp.Santo & Rapini appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2009 Sasaki, D. [1782], Mato Grosso Marsdenia altissima K000579372
Oct 25, 2003 Aparecida da Silva, M. et al [4351], Brazil Marsdenia altissima K000035396
Jan 1, 2003 Hatschbach, G.G. [74231], Brazil Marsdenia altissima K001060811
Jan 1, 2001 Anderson, W.R. [9140], Brazil Marsdenia altissima K000095792
Jan 1, 2001 Pearson, H.P.N. [56], Brazil Marsdenia altissima K000095791
Jan 1, 2001 Harley, R.M. [21425], Brazil Marsdenia altissima K000095780
Jan 1, 2000 Silva, M.A. [3384], Brazil Marsdenia altissima K000095794 isolectotype
Aug 1, 1988 Milliken, W. [203], Brazil Marsdenia altissima K000095784
Aug 1, 1988 Stannard, B.L. [734], Brazil Marsdenia altissima K000095785
Aug 20, 1985 Harley, R.M. [21554], Brazil Marsdenia altissima K000095781
Smith, H.H. [2094], Colombia Marsdenia altissima K000438638
Guyana Marsdenia altissima K000438645 Unknown type material
Burchell [7310], Brazil Marsdenia altissima K000095788 Unknown type material
Saar, E. [5094], Brazil Marsdenia altissima K000095782 isolectotype
s.coll. [8729], Brazil Marsdenia altissima K000095787
Pearson, H.P.N. [56], Brazil Marsdenia altissima K000095790
Anderson, W.R. [9140], Brazil Marsdenia altissima K000095793
Glaziou, A.F.M. [12959], Brazil Marsdenia altissima K000095795
Wood, J.R.I. [23633], Bolivia Marsdenia altissima 77365.000
Brito, H.S. [286], Brazil Marsdenia altissima K000095783
Burchell [8030], Brazil Marsdenia altissima K000095786

First published in Kew Bull. 74(2)-30: 10 (2019)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00997-6 Scientific Data 8: 215.

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  • Taberlet, P., Gielly, L., Pautou, G. & Bouvet, J. (1991). Universal primers for amplification of three non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA. Pl. Molec. Biol. 17: 1105 – 1109.
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Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Rapini, A. (2010). Revisitando as Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae) da Cadeia do Espiniaço Boletim de Botânica da Universidade de São Paulo 28: 97-123.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

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Kew Bulletin
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Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
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