Ficus thonningii Blume

This species is accepted, and its native range is Cape Verde, Tropical & S. Africa.

[FTEA]

Moraceae, C.C. Berg (University of Bergen). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Tree up to 15(–30) m. tall or a shrub, terrestrial or hemi-epiphytic.
Morphology Twigs
Leafy twigs 1.5–7 mm. thick, minutely puberulous to hirtellous or white to brown pubescent, at least on the scars of the stipules or sometimes entirely glabrous, periderm usually not flaking off.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves in spirals, occasionally subopposite; lamina ± coriaceous, elliptic to lanceolate, oblanceolate, obovate or subovate, (1.5–)3–12(–18) × (1–)1.5–6(–7) cm., apex acuminate to obtuse or rounded, base subacute to rounded or subcordate, margin entire; upper surface glabrous or sparsely (on the midrib to rather densely) puberulous to pubescent, lower surface glabrous or sparsely to densely white (to brownish) puberulous to pubescent on the whole surface, the main veins or only the midrib; lateral veins (5–)7–12(–16) pairs, midrib often reaching the apex of the lamina (even in leaves with a rounded apex); tertiary venation reticulate or parallel to the lateral veins; petiole (0.5–)1–4(–6) cm. long, 1–2 mm. thick, often (not depending on the size of the lamina or the position of the leaf on the twig) variable in length on the same twig, glabrous or puberulous, hirtellous or pubescent; stipules 0.3–1(–1.5) cm. long, white to brown pubescent, puberulous or only ciliolate, caducous or subpersistent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits Infructescences
Figs in pairs in the leaf-axils or sometimes also below the leaves, sessile or on peduncles up to 1 cm. long; basal bracts 2–4 mm. long, persistent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Receptacle
Receptacle globose to ellipsoid, 0.5–1.5(–2) cm. in diameter when fresh, 0.4–1.2(–1.7) cm. when dry, glabrous or sparsely to densely white to brown puberulous or pubescent, reddish, yellowish or brownish at maturity; wall thin, mostly smooth or slightly wrinkled when dry; apex plane to strongly protruding when dry.
Figures
Fig. 21, p.74.
Habitat
Forest, woodland, bushland and woodedd grassland, sometimes along rivers and lakes or among rocks, planted for ornament and bark-cloth; 350–2500 m.
Distribution
K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 extending to Cape Verde Is., Angola, Ethiopia and South Africa

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Tree up to c. 12 m tall, trunk up to c. 0.5 m in diam.
Morphology General Bark
Bark grey, smooth, slash brownish to red; latex milky white
Morphology Branches
Young branches puberulous to glabrescent, with brownish bark
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate; petiole 1–3(–5) cm long, glabrous or glabrescent; stipules lateral, free, lanceolate, up to 0.8 cm long, pubescent, at least on the midrib; blade papery, mostly drying brownish, lanceolate, oblong, elliptic, or narrowly ovate, or obovate, generally wider above the middle, 5–11 x 2–4 cm, base cuneate to obtuse, rarely rounded or subcordate, margin entire, apex acuminate, acute, or rounded, glabrous on both sides, rarely pubescent beneath, with 12–25 pairs of lateral veins and an often poorly marked zone of glandular tissue below at the base of midnerve
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Figs (1–)2 in the leaf axils, sessile or on peduncles up to 8 mm long; basal bracts 3, ovoid, fused in the persisting basal part, apical part free, caducous; receptacle subglobose to ± ovoid, 6–9(–14) mm in diam., glabrous to slightly puberulous, often with brownish to reddish spots; ostiole ± prominent, 2-lipped, small, with no bracts visible from the outside.
Distribution
The species is widespread in tropical Africa, west to Senegal, south to Zambia and there are closely related forms on Madagascar and the Mascarene Is.
Note
The characters previously used to separate species in this complex (size, shape and indumentum of leaves, length of petiole, length of peduncle, size and indumentum of fig) seem all to break down when applied to the complex as a whole.

[FZ]

Moraceae, C. C. Berg. Flora Zambesiaca 9:6. 1991

Morphology General Habit
Tree up to 15(30) m. tall, or a shrub, terrestrial or hemi-epiphytic.
Morphology Twigs
Leafy twigs 1.5–8 mm. thick, minutely puberulous to hirtellous or white- to brown-pubescent, or glabrous on the stipule scars, sometimes entirely glabrous, periderm usually not flaking off.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves spirally arranged, occasionally subopposite; lamina elliptic to oblanceolate or subobovate to subovate, (1.5)3–12(18) x (1)1.5–6(9) cm., subcoriaceous; apex acuminate to obtuse or rounded; base cuneate to rounded or subcordate, often slightly inaequilateral; margin entire; superior surface glabrous or sparsely puberulous to pubescent, the midrib more densely so, the inferior surface glabrous or sparsely to densely white- to brownish-puberulous or pubescent on the whole surface, the main veins or only the midrib; lateral veins (5)7–12(16) pairs, midrib often reaching the apex of the lamina (even in leaves with a rounded apex), tertiary venation reticulate or parallel to the lateral veins; petiole (0.5)1–4(6) cm. long, 1–2 mm. thick, often (not depending on the size of the lamina or the position of the leaf on the twig) variable in length on the same twig, glabrous or puberulous, hirtellous or pubescent; stipules 3–10(20) mm. long, white to brown pubescent, puberulous or only ciliolate, caducous or subpersistent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Figs in pairs in the leaf axils, sometimes also below the leaves, sessile or on peduncles up to 1 cm. long; basal bracts 2–4 mm. long, persistent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Receptacle
Receptacle globose to ellipsoid, c. 5–10(12) mm. in diam. when fresh, 4–12(17) mm. in diam. when dry, glabrous or sparsely to densely white to brown puberulous or pubescent, reddish, yellowish or brownish at maturity; wall thin, mostly smooth or slightly wrinkled when dry; apex plane to strongly protruding when dry.

[FWTA]

Moraceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A tree, to 60 ft. high
Morphology Leaves
Dark green foliage
Morphology Roots
Numerous aerial roots
Note
Often planted as a shade tree.

[FWTA]

Moraceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A tree or epiphyte
Morphology Branches
Nearly glabrous branchlets
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Figs pale in colour, generally in pairs, and numerous on the young shoots.

[FWTA]

Moraceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A tree up to 40 ft. high with a girth of 15 ft.
Morphology General Bark
Smooth pale bark
Note
Often epiphytic at first
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Figs crowded on the branchlets.

[FWTA]

Moraceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
An epiphyte or tree up to 45 ft.
Morphology Branches
Rather slender pubescent branchlets.

Native to:

Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

English
Bark cloth fig, Burkis fig, Common wild fig, Peters fig, Strangler fig

Ficus thonningii Blume appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Nov 1, 2008 Pollard, B.J. [1392], Cameroon K000580268 No
Jun 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1542], Cameroon K000026744 No
Jun 1, 2002 Cable, S. [2889], Cameroon K000026753 No
Jun 1, 2002 Cable, S. [699], Cameroon K000026754 No
Jan 1, 1993 Tekwe, C. [332], Cameroon K000011738 No
Jan 1, 1993 Thomas, D.W. [9493], Cameroon K000011737 No
Mar 21, 1988 Toutain, B. [972], Burkina Faso K000385926 No
Dec 4, 1983 Biegel, H.M. [3244], Botswana K000315246 Yes
Nov 30, 1983 Stigand, A.G. [s.n.], Botswana K000315245 No
Jan 1, 1983 Goetze [1348], Tanzania K000243351 Yes
Jul 1, 1975 Letouzey, R. [13936], Cameroon K000181701 No
Dalziel, J.M. [1344], Nigeria 16918.000 No
Anglade, L. [397], Nigeria 22112.000 No
Miller, A.K. [379], Uganda 22759.000 No
Polhill, R. [1492], Tanzania 22931.000 No
Polhill, R. [12089], Kenya 23417.000 No
Polhill, R. [1804], Tanzania 23738.000 No
Glover [2659], Kenya 24452.000 No
Plhill, R. [1259], Tanzania 25098.000 No
Keay, R.W.J. [25665], Nigeria 2707.000 No
Polhill, R. [12089], Kenya 27338.000 No
Strahsaker, T.T. [14], Cameroon 31329.000 No
Fay, J.M. [7324], Central African Republic 63315.000 No
Fay, J.M. [7237], Central African Republic 63380.000 No
Elliot, W.R. [133], Nigeria K000243204 Yes
Poisson [s.n.], Togo K000243209 No
Kersting [533], Togo K000243210 No
Lepriuer [s.n.] K000243212 Unknown type material No
Rogers [26167], Zaire K000243258 Unknown type material Yes
Lebrum, J. [9446], Zaïre K000243259 Yes
Lebrum, J. [9446], Zaïre K000243307 Yes
Schweinfurth, G. [1509] K000243321 Yes
Kotschy [473] K000243322 Unknown type material Yes
Kotschy [473] K000243323 Unknown type material Yes
Schimper [709], Ethiopia K000243324 Yes
Schimper [709], Ethiopia K000243325 Yes
Schimper [11.627], Ethiopia K000243326 Unknown type material Yes
Schimper [627], Ethiopia K000243327 Unknown type material Yes
Schimper [220], Ethiopia K000243328 Unknown type material Yes
Petit [335], Ethiopia K000243329 Yes
Schimper [373], Ethiopia K000243330 isotype Yes
Schimper [373], Ethiopia K000243331 Yes
Fries, R.E. [913], Kenya K000243346 No
Welw. [6412], Angola K000243393 syntype Yes
Welw. [6386], Angola K000243394 Yes
Gossweiler, J. [667], Angola K000243395 syntype Yes
Welw. [6337], Angola K000243396 Unknown type material Yes
Welw. [6417], Angola K000243397 syntype Yes
illegible [30], Zimbabwe K000243398 Yes
Engler [3060], Zimbabwe K000243399 Unknown type material Yes
Mildbraed [6639] K000243400 Yes
Williamson, D.T. [95], Botswana K000315244 No
Edwards, D. [3321], South Africa K000315289 No
Hutchinson, J. [40], Cameroon K000181707 No
Hutchinson, J. [40], Cameroon K000181708 No
Harris, T. [555], Malawi K000614630 No
Steele, M. [2], Cameroon K000181706 No
Breteler, F.J. [193], Cameroon K000181703 No
Ward, C.J. [10341], Namibia K000315288 Yes
Breteler, F.J. [296], Cameroon K000181702 No
Maitland, T.D. [1267], Cameroon K000181704 No
Struhsaker, T.T. [14], Cameroon K000181709 No
Mozambique Ficus dekdekena 23400.000 No
Polhill, R. [1603], Tanzania Ficus dekdekena 24391.000 No
Ash [382], Ethiopia Ficus dekdekena 33257.000 No
Ash [382], Ethiopia Ficus dekdekena 6049.378 No
Wild, H. [1267], Zimbabwe Ficus burkei 11062.000 No
Polhill, R. [1348], Tanzania Ficus burkei 23363.000 No
Brenan, J.P.M. [7776], Zambia Ficus burkei 2688.000 No
Dawkins, H.C. [607], Uganda Ficus persicifolia 11083.000 No
Milne-Redhead, E. [8881], Tanzania Ficus petersii 11082.000 No
Polhill, R. [1200], Tanzania Ficus petersii 22922.000 No
Polhill, R. [1196], Tanzania Ficus petersii 23740.000 No
Greenway, P.J. [11643], Tanzania Ficus petersii 28124.000 No

First published in Rumphia 2: 18 (1838)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Berg, C.C. & Hijman, M.E.E. (1989). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Moraceae: 1-95.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau). Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya. Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Launert, E. & Cope, G.V. (eds.) (1991). Flora Zambesiaca 9(6): 1-135. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo). Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea). Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Aubrév. Fl. For. C. Iv. 1: 72, t. 19 B
  • Aubrév. Fl. For. Soud.-Guin. 347, t. 71, 6–7.
  • Chev. Bot. 604
  • Lebrun & Boutique in Fl. Congo Belge 1: 148, t. 16
  • —F.T.A. 6, 2: 187

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya. Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by I. Friis [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Bl. in Rumphia 2: 17 (1836).
  • C.C. Berg in Fl. Cameroun 28: 175, t. 59 (1985).
  • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 321 (1961).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 270 (1952).
  • Hamilton, Ug. For. Trees: 104(1981).
  • Hutch. in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(2): 187 (1916).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 360 (1949).
  • Keay in Flora of West Tropical Africa ed. 2, 1: 610 (1958).
  • Lebrun & Boutique in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 1: 148, t. 16 (1948).
  • Peter, Flora von Deutsch-Ostafrika 2: 109 (1932).
  • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 260 (1952).

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Plants and People Africa

    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/