Skip to main content
This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

Morphology General
Characters as for the family.
Distribution
A widespread genus with 3–6(12) species (fide Verdcourt ) tropical Africa, Asia, Oceania and America.  It is represented by a single species along the east coast of Africa, including the Seychelles, the Comoros, the Mozambique Channel Islands, Mada
Note
Characters as for the family.

[FTEA]

Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

Morphology General Habit
Shrubs or small trees of the mangrove zone; pneumatophores present; nodes swollen
Morphology Leaves
Leaves simple, lanceolate to elliptic, decussate, coriaceous, entire; stipules absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers sessile, yellow to orange in terminal and axillary often capitate cymes, regular, subtended by an involucre of 1 scale-like bract and 2 scale-like bracteoles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx deeply 5-lobed; lobes ovate, imbricate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla-tube shortly campanulate; lobes 4, ovate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens inserted at the throat, equal or slightly didynamous, alternating with the lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary with free central placentation; ovules 4, pendulous; style shortly divided
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule broadly ellipsoid, compressed, opening by 2(–4) thick valves; usually only 1 erect seed; embryo with large longitudinally folded cotyledons and villous radicle, viviparous; endosperm fleshy.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Trees and shrubs, with erect aerial roots (pneumatophores); young stems 4-angled
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, simple, without stipules
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers bisexual, regular, in terminal and axillary dense cymes, each flower subtended by an involucre of a scale-like bract and 2 bracteoles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx deeply 5-lobed, with imbricate lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla-tube short, lobes 4
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4, inserted in throat of corolla-tube; anthers 2-celled, opening by longitudinal slits
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary superior, with free central ± 4-winged placenta and 4 pendulous ovules; style shortly 2-fid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a capsule opening by 2(–4) thick valves, usually 1-seeded
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed ± viviparous.
Distribution
Genus of eight species according to delimitation, confined to mangroves of both the Old and the New World.

Native to:

Alabama, Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Aruba, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malaya, Maluku, Marianas, Mauritania, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Norfolk Is., Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Panamá, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Vietnam, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zaïre

Introduced into:

California

Avicennia L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Edwards, P.J. [4020], New Guinea 70602.000
Edwards, P.J. [4020], New Guinea K000260987
Puradyatmika, P. [10407], New Guinea K000260986
Martins, V.S. [7], Brazil K001046330
Araújo, A.P. [390], Brazil K001046332
Carvalho, A.M. [37], Brazil K001046331
Moura, O.T. [s.n.], Brazil K001046334
Moura, O.T. [244], Brazil K001046333

First published in Sp. Pl.: 110 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00997-6 Scientific Data 8: 215.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Moldenke in Phytologia 7: 123, 179, 259 (1960).
  • —F.T.A. 5: 331

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60 : 149–154 (1973)
  • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 144, fig. 21 (1992).
  • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 49 (1754).
  • Moldenke in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 149–154 (1973)
  • Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4 : 126 (1983).
  • Sp. Pl.: 110 (1753)
  • Verdcourt in F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 144, fig. 21 (1992).
  • in Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4: 126 (1983).

Flora of Somalia

  • Cuf. Enum.: 803 (1962)
  • Fl. Trop. E. Afr. (1992), as part of Verbenaceae.
  • Flora Somalia, (2000) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Bakhuizen van den Brink in Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., sér. 3, 3: 199–226, tt. 14–22 (1921)
  • Biswas in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edin. 18: 159–166, tt. 243–246 (1934)
  • Jafri, Fl. W. Pakistan 49, Avicenniac. (1973)
  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 49 (1754)
  • Moldenke in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 149–154 (1973)
  • Sp. Pl.: 110 (1753)
  • in Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4: 126 (1983) (very full references)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0